It can be hard to tell if it is natural or man made, but either way, in 1995 it was the hottest year on record, research shows from the British Meteorological office. Some scientists predict that if green house gasses are not reduced quickly, temperatures could raise the average temperature 1.8 to 6.3 degree Farenheit by 2100. The average temperature rose 1.8-degree Fahrenheit from 1850 to about 1998. This says the temperature is rising faster because of more fossil fuels and Co2 being pumped into the atmosphere. These increases of temperature, scientists predict, could cause sea levels to rise 20 inches and more.
With the rise in modern technology, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface has increased about 1.4 °F; two-thirds of which has arisen since the early 1980’s. Industrialized countries are major contributors to climate change, due in part to their involvement in deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. These activities lead to an increase in levels of greenhouse gases, which scientists propose is the number one cause of global warming. The greenhouse effect is an example of external forcing: any process that has influence over climate, outside of the climate system. When infrared radiation is emitted and absorbed into the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect occurs.
The result of man-made global warming can be felt much earlier. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, carbon dioxide and methane have increased dramatically, 39% and 149% respectfully (Akorede, Hizam, Ab Kadir, Aris, & Buba, 2012). These greenhouse gasses have a major radiative effect on the atmosphere, by reflecting most of the sun’s energy back to the earth instead of allowing it to be radiated back into space. Between 1906 and 2005 the average global temperature has increased by .74 ± .18 degrees centigrade, 1.33 ± .32 degrees Fahrenheit, due to the radiative effects of these gasses (Akorede, Hizam, Ab Kadir, Aris, & Buba, 2012). The addition of excess greenhouse gasses is seriously enhancing natural global warming.
3.0 Background Information 3.1 Rising CO2 Levels and Ocean Acidification Ocean acidification is caused due to rising CO2 emissions created by industrial development and greenhouse gases. This increase in carbon dioxide causes changes within the ocean’s biochemistry. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to rise from pre-industrial level of 280 to 540-970 ppm by the year 2100, depending on future emission scenarios (IPCC, 2001). Eventually the oceans will become highly acidic if mankind is unable to control their CO2 emissions. About 30% of CO2 emissions are taken up by the oceans today (Freely et al.
There are growing concerns about climate change and the effect of ‘greenhouse gases’ (GHG) on the gradual increase in world temperatures over time, now commonly known as global warming. The ‘greenhouse effect’ means that ‘greenhouse gases’ such as water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons insulate the Earth by absorbing heat from the Earth’s surface and reflecting it back into the atmosphere, acting in a similar way to a thermal blanket (Houghton, 2005). Although associated in recent times with pollution and climate change, the ‘greenhouse effect’ is essential for the continuity of the Earth’s climate (Karl and Trenberth, 2003). However, since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (from the 18th to the 19th Century), the burning of fossil fuel meant that the greenhouse effect went from simply protecting the Earth’s climate to causing an actual increase in world temperatures (Martinez, 2005; Houghton, 2005). The gaseous culprit is the seemingly innocuous CO2, although harmless in the right atmospheric proportions, it is nevertheless a very powerful insulator and heat reflector (Houghton, 2005).
Scientists have found an increased greenhouse gas concentration, making the 20th century the hottest in the last 10,000 years. Although the earth has undergone periodic changes known as global cooling and global warming, today’s global warming is unique, due to human influences. The greenhouse effect is essentially gasses in the atmosphere trapping heat, rather like a car window does in the summer. The major heat trapping gasses found in the atmosphere are; CO2 and water vapor- which are found in large quantity, 03(ozone), ch4(methane), and N2O(nitrous oxide)-which are better heat trappers but found in smaller quantity, CFC’s and PFC’s- which are very potent and destroy ozone. The rapid elevation of these gasses in the past fifty years have been the cause for concern of scientists calling it a global warming problem.
For the past few hundred thousand years the amount of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have been at natural and comfortable life sustaining levels. But in just the last one hundred or so years, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the levels of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide, have gone through the roof. Global warming can, and will, if not stopped, have devastating effects on our planet; possibilities include rising temperatures, droughts, mass extinctions and much more. Humans are having a strong, negative, impact on the environment. The “greenhouse effect” is the most prominent cause for the rise of global temperatures.
But the greenhouse gases do not let the infra-red radiations escape into the outer space. This trapping of the long wavelength infra-red radiation leads to higher temperature and more heat on the earth’s surface. Over the past few decades, human activities tend to release lots of greenhouse gases into atmosphere like carbon dioxide (Co2), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, carbon tetra fluoride, hexafluororethane. Most of these greenhouse gases come from defores... ... middle of paper ... ...ng of Arctic sea cap and increased defrosting of Greenland and Antarctic glaciers, earlier blooming of trees and plants in spring. Earth’s temperature measurements show the surface warming which is consistent with warming of troposphere and cooling of stratosphere.
The remaining carbon usually gets absorbed by the oceans. 90 percent of the effects of global warming are attributed to rising temperatures and heat. This heat tends to affect our oceans due to the ... ... middle of paper ... ...and production is thought to be one of the leading causes of this pollutant in the atmosphere. Taller smoke stacks on factories manage to carry the pollution farther away from nearby populations, but in doing this they also manage to carry the pollutants to a much wider range. The chemicals can be carried high and far into the atmosphere and can be deposited in areas far from the initial source of the pollution.
Many of the sun’s rays are absorbed by water vapor. Water vapor is a natural atmospheric gas and it accounts for “80 percent of natural greenhouse warming; the remaining 20 percent is due to other gasses that are present in very small amounts” (Murck, Skinner, and Porter 488). A greenhouse gas known as carbon dioxide is the second biggest absorber of the sun’s heat rays. Humans affect the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in many ways. Every time fossil fuels are burned, more carbon dioxide is released into the air.