Translating for Social Change Frequently in "Feminist Political and Social Thought" taught at SUNY Albany, by Dr. J. Hobson, I found myself simultaneously inspired and frustrated by the theory we were assigned to read. Authors such as bell hooks, Uma Narayan, Ann Russo, Kimberly Crenshaw, Andy Smith, John Stoltenberg, and Judy Baca did such wonderful jobs of pointing out the problems of perspective that stymie the feminist movement from achieving its goal to facilitate the bonding of the oppressed across differences, in order to overcome all oppressions. Unfortunately when combing through these authors intricately written, often jargon-ridden words, it was difficult to make practical sense of their insights. I understood what many of them were saying and in many cases I couldn't agree more, only I could barley imagine how these theories might be applied to real life scenarios. Furthermore, it was difficult for me to see how much of this would come to any use-say the next time someone made a racist, homophobic, Western-centric, sexist comment at work, or at the Thanksgiving dinner table for that matter.
She laments: “It’s one justice for men and quite another for women” (24). Netto shares the view on the need for protest says, “Bama, like Periyar contests this construction of the male as the superior and advises women to break the rules of patriarchy as a framework to oppress women and maintain their hegemony” (70). The narrator shows that the women not as victimized creatures but as protesters. Abedi, in his book Contemporary Dalit Literature, says “Bama through her writing hopes to influence Dalit women readers to shape their lives positively. Her works lay a lot of emphasis on empowerment of dalits through education” (109).
He is discussing how he hates Othello, yet he must feign loyalty for his position. This is already a clue to the reader that Iago cannot be trusted. This feeling of mistrust is vital in the mood of the play because it is most ironic that Othello trusts Iago as much as to murder his own wife. This ironic plot creates a frustrating feeling for the reader which is felt throughout the play. The mood is tense when we find out that Brabantio is angry that Othello has taken his daughter.
Frustrated from his wife’s Illiteracy and open disinterest in his western ways, he finds a comforting partner and an enthusiastic student in Virmati.The only thing probably missing from the plot is a bit of humor element that was much desired for. In Inheritence of Loss the story moves at a constant pace and similar serious tone that makes it predictable at times. The major theme running throughout is one closely related to colonialism and the effects of Post Colonilism: the loss of identity and the way it travels through generations as a sense of loss. Individuals within the text show snobbery at those who embody the Indian way of life and vice versa, with
There are many definitions of feminism, but most importantly feminism should be considered as a tool to advocate for women's rights in politics, law, science and society in general. This is an important aspect of protection for women against inequality, insecurity and discrimination. Reasonable representations and arguments about women's ideology provide us a complete picture the nature of feminism. There are many stereotypes about feminism which describe feminism in a wrong way. So, what is feminism true meaning?
. . We need to know the writing of the past, and know it differently than we have ever known it; not to pass on a tradition but to break its hold over us. Rich is aware of the importance of revising the historical and the literary heritage as it was exclusive vis-à-vis women, and as it must be rewritten to include women’s (her) story and break up with the old stereotypes that were held on women. Rich adds in the same essay: For writers and at this moment for women writers in particular, there is the challenge and promise of a whole new psychic geography to be explored.
Volga has illustrated that how and why it is important to discover the spaces that women have created for themselves so as to resist the dominance that is asserted on them in order to diminish their sense of individuality. In The Law of the Threshold, Malashri Lal points out that the writings of Indian women have a propensity to be “non aggressive” (Lal, 28) but A Quest for Freedom can be considered aggressive to a large extent as the protagonist refusal to accept the norms is taken a little too far. According to Usha Bhande,
Virginia Woolf's ambitious work A Room of One's Own tackles many significant issues concerning the history and culture of women's writing, and attempts to document the conditions which women have had to endure in order to write, juxtaposing these with her vision of ideal conditions for the creation of literature. Woolf's extended essay has endured and proved itself to be a viable, pioneering feminist piece of work, but the broad range of ideas and arguments Woolf explores leaves her piece open to criticism over certain concepts which seem to contradict themselves. This observation can be explained most satisfactorily by critic Ellen Bayuk Rosenman, who posits, "the essay does not strive for the strict coherence of a jigsaw puzzle, composed of perfectly interlocking pieces in which no gaps exist and there is nothing left over...Woolf's essay has proved so durable because it often contradicts itself"(13). Woolf puts forth the notion in the end of her essay that the "androgynous mind" is to be the apotheosis of all the perspectives of writing; yet this belief she conveys contradicts not only previous evidence she has expressed but also diminishes the value of the female as a significant contributor to the world of literature, and discredits woman's ability to write as she is attempting to praise and inspire us. Virginia Woolf uses A Room of One's Own as a platform to discuss past and current social inequities that exist within the realm of women and literature, attempting to document the negative effects that patriarchal society of the early twentieth century England has wrought upon the female psyche.
Postmodernism is fully committed to accommodating the voices of the eccentric and the marginalized. Herein lays the close connection between feminism and postmodernism. The women writer manipulates stances that critique domination and thus lays bare the multivocal worlds of different societies and different cultures. Indian women writers assert that a Feminist theory should be explicitly historical, attuned to the cultural specificity of different societies and periods and to different groups within societies and periods. They wish to analyse the workings of patriarchy in all its manifestations, desire to think in terms of pluralities and diversities rather than unities and universals and articulate ways of thinking about gender without simply reversing the old hierarchies or confirming them.
Similarly, according to Kabeer (2001), women’s empowerment is a process that seeks to challenge patriarchal institutions and beliefs that reinforce women’s inequality. For her, it aims at achieving collective rights in social, economic, political, and cultural domains. Thus, similar to Batliwala, Kabeer(2001) looks at empowerment as being a collective endeavour across various domains. Also in this line of thinking would be Marquand (1997) and Stiles (2000) who focus on the role of national and global politics and posit that, for any change to emerge, women and men cannot only be understood at the local