During his visit to Fort Detrick, he announced that the United States would terminate all research on biological weapons. By the year 1972 the United States had completely destroyed all biological weapon stockpile. In return of this act the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention was held, As a result of 118 countries signed a agreeing not to develop, produce, or stockpile any form of biological weapon(Mayer p4). Unfortunately despite many laws passed over time, few countries have abided by them. Evidence of this came in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s there were reports that the Soviet Union was using biological weapons in Laos, Kampuchea, and Afghanistan (Mayer p 4).
With the close of the war came the trials of Axis war criminals, it was then that the United States would begin its next stage in biological weapon engineering. The Americans were able to reach a deal with Ishii, leader of Unit 731, in which he and his team would be given immunity for the forfeiture of his years of work testing biological weapons on human subjects. This move, as previously stated, has been heavily criticized by every country that was victimized by Ishii’s cruel and unusual testing procedures. With the onset of the Korean War the United States government was faced with a tricky subject. They were fearful of the communist biological program becoming involved within the turmoil.
The foundation of microbiology allowed those who were interested in biological weapons, to chose and design different biological agents. The potential dangers of these agents were soon recognized and resulted in two international declarations that prohibited the use of poisoned weapons. These treaties, however, contained no means of control and therefore, interested parties were developing and using biological weapons that we can see illustrated by the German army in the First World War. The German army was the first to use biological and chemical weapons, attempting to infect animals directly and to contaminate animal feed in their enemies’ co... ... middle of paper ... ...ritish Medical Journal, 324(7333), 336. Burgess, S. F., & Purkitt, H. E. (2001).
Yes we do have nuclear and chemical weapons that threaten our society, but these weapons aren’t alive. We must pay greater attention to certain toxins that Americans are injecting into their bodies on a daily basis. So what is Botulinum Toxin? Botulinu... ... middle of paper ... ...emselves with Botulinum Toxin? Works Cited Arnon, S. S. (2001).
Certain nations inherited them, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Russia, while others tried stealing them, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. And since the breakup certain people have been caught stealing the materials needed to make a bomb. These terrorists have never been caught in the United States but numerous times in Europe. (www.pbs.org) As a matter of fact, the Russians say someone stole a bomb simulator, which will explode and make mushroom cloud but has no nuclear component. (Wilkie) People know that despite efforts to keep control on the old Soviet stockpile and waste, terrorists are getting the plutonium and uranium needed to make nuclear weapons to kill masses of people.
Ex-Soviet biowarfare researchers have reported the development of a strain of plague resistant to 16 different antibiotics by the Biopreparat, a clandestine network of research facilities located in Russia and Kazakhstan (Dennis 2001). It is certain that the US government was aware of the Soviet interest in biowarfare and thus also had biowarfare and defense programs. It wasn’t until Iraq used chemical weapons against the Kurds that we thought a modern state would actually employ chemical or biological weapons. Then, in 1995, the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo released sarin gas on a subway, killing 12 ([Anonymous] 2001), and demonstrated that there was need for real concern about chemical and biological terrorism. In addition to the September 11th attacks, the American public was also subjected to anthrax attacks during the final months of 2001.
Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.fas.org/biosecurity/resource/bioweapons.htm#btwc Fedorov, L. A. (1994, July 27). Chemical Weapons in Russia: History, Ecology, Politics. Chemical Weapons in Russia: History, Ecology, Politics. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/cbw/jptac008_l94001.htm Weiner, T. (1998, February 25).
Classified reports from the Pentagon also support the veterans claim that they were exposed to chemical warfare. The documents reported that chemical agents were detected and that some chemical weapons were left on the battlefield. Also our allies, the Czech and French forces detected chemical agents with their detection devices in Northern Saudi Arabia during the beginning of the Gulf War, but US commanders ordered that any warnin... ... middle of paper ... ...ld kill or injure thousands. I believe the reason why America covers up this type of situation so that the citizens can believe that they are safe at all times. Also I believe that the politicians who sent the troops into war do not want to take responsibility for their actions.
If we look at the number of bomb shelters being built and drills being conducted in classrooms during the late fifties and early sixties we would see evidence of that would point to the overall feeling in American society that the end was near. The nuclear genie was safely contained by the super powers. But I think that Vonnegut saw that all it would take was one small country; who possessed end of the world technology, to have an accident and it would spell the doom of mankind. Vonnegut writes, when speaking of ice-nine, that "apparently the United States of America and Union of Soviet Socialist Republic had it....understandably surrounded by electrified fences and homicidal German shepards" (Chapt. 110).