Using the work and writing of Lord, Ingraham and Concannon this paper will explore the relationship between citizenship, sexual identity and social exclusion. “The Silencing of Sexuality” by author Cassandra Lord focuses on the negative response society places on homosexuality. The concept of living a... ... middle of paper ... ...owards heteronormativity. What people refer to, as normal human behavior doesn’t necessarily apply to everyone. However, due to conservative traditional and religious beliefs, the integration of homosexuals in society is often met with resistance.
Many times the Bible will also be used to refer to verses that condemn acts of homosexual sex. People who favor the morality of homosexuality find many things wrong with these arguments. To say that the only purpose of sex is to reproduce would be wrong because there are many examples of heterosexual couples who have sex without the intention of conception. Medical problems, protected sex, and just sex for fun are all reasons why
The reasons for our sexual choices are analyzed obsessively, imposing an undue emphasis on categorization rather than accepting the great diversity of same-sex attractions. But the act of categorizing all of these atypical sexual attractions does not mean that acting on them is either legal or morally acceptable nor unacceptable. Explanations for all of the elements of our sexual attractions are complex and probably unknowable. All research runs the risk of reductionism, but when research on sexuality focuses exclusively on genital sexual activity --to the exclusion of considerations of attraction, affection and affiliation--it falls short in understanding our
However, this is not always the case. When the sexual goal deviates from normality, it is referred to as inversion. Inversion is essentially homosexuality, although there are three subdivisions within it, which are: absolute, amphigenic, and occasional, which vary in exclusivity and emotional connection to the inverted sexual object. According to cultural norms of Freud’s era, inversion was considered innate and/or degenerate. However, Freud disagrees with this normative distinction.
Another definition with the same double standard is shown in the fourth definition, which states “a sexual act not involving the insertion of a real penis into an orifice of a human being.” Bestiality is not considered masturbatory; therefore this statement would be incorrect. In the fifth definition, it mentions “a sexual act not involving the insertion of a real penis into an orif... ... middle of paper ... ...feminist writers. From the liberal’s point of view, they believe that masturbation is wrong. They believe masturbation-- even pornography-- send out a bad message towards men undergoing a lot of pressure to become sexually active. Partaking in masturbation or watching pornography degrades women and makes them feel as if they are being used as an object.
As various aspects and components contribute to a person’s identity, it is incorrect to limit human beings into a single group. Instead, queer theory broadens the discussion on individual identity, forming critiques on how factors such as gender and societal influences contribute to the way in which a person creates, maintains, and or changes his or her own identity. Hence, queer theorists distrust the legitimacy of “straight” ideology or heteronormativity, which holds that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation. Therefore “[looking] beyond an exclusive and fixed sexuality” (Dyer 4) and widening the interpretation of literary texts to include deviant types of sexual references and identities has become one of the major tasks of queer theorists. Attempting to resist the accustomed outlook that marriage and sexual relationships are only appropriate between a male and female, queer theory directs its main focus toward analyzing both the subtle and apparent non-normative ... ... middle of paper ... ...e that is lesbian as Marlow speaks of them together and not separately.
The issue of homosexuality, however, is argued further when considering the topic of sexual ethics; homosexuality is not the only aspect of sexual ethics but also what is good and what is the purpose of sex and taboo situations such as incest, rape, pre-marriageable sex, monogamy and polygamy. Two philosophers, John Corvino and Alexander Pruss, argue their views on the matter of sexual ethics and give their opinions in relations to above issues, most notably in discussing the purpose of sex. By focusing on Pruss’s nature of love argument, more specifically that the “illusions of sex” are not what makes sex good and how same-sex relations are not morally permissible will construct an arguments against the permissibility of various sexual activities. Sexual ethics, otherwise known as sexual morality, involves issues revolving around one’s sexuality and human sexual behaviors. Alexander Pruss discusses sexual ethics in the form of the importance of love and the forms that it takes.
Times changes and so do viewpoints on what is sexually acceptable, however, some forms of sexual deviancy such as pedophilia will never be acceptable by any standards of human decency. Sexual deviancy is defined by Wikipedia as Paraphilia. This term is used to describe sexual objects or images that cause sexual arousal, Paraphilia “involves sexual arousal and gratification towards sexual behavior that is atypical or extreme” (Wikipedia) and viewed as abnormal to the standards that society has set at that time. We as society have come so far in our acceptance of sexual orientation and sexual identity. Some of this due to advocacy, but a majority of these changing viewpoints are due to internet pornography.
As “we live in a culture that thinks in binary categories” (Ochs, 1996: 224), the existence of other sexual and gender identities are denied and discriminated against, such as “third sex” people. Individuals who are “third sex” have a gender identity that does not fit neatly into the categories of ‘male’ and ‘female’, and may have same-sex relations or both (homosexual or bisexual). People tend to identify that “third sex” individuals have freedom from the gender binary; however, that is not necessarily the case (Ochs, 1996). Some “third sexes” like transgender people are likely to face particular challenges in living out their sexualities. For example, in societies which refuse to recognise their gender identities, with high rates of rape and sexual violence from law enforcement and others, and discrimination by sexual health services, transgender people may struggle to negotiate their own sexual interactions (Ilkkaracan & Jolly, 2007).
Again, there are different ideas of what is considered pornographic from artwork, movies, and books. While one may look at a painting that depicts nude forms or read a book that includes sexual acts may not see this as a form of pornography while others would find it morally offensive. Feminist would argue that the morality of porn is it is degrading and humiliating to those involved, not of its sexual nature. Their concern is that it promotes sexism and violence against women or children. “What is objectionable about pornography…is its abusive and degrading portrayal of females and female sexuality, not its content or explicitness” (Rodgerson & Wilson, 1994) However, others may feel that it is sexually liberating and in no way degrading to those involved.