In the seventh century saw the collapse of the Byzantium Empire, which was defeated and taken over by the Ottoman-Turk Empire from the East of Constantinople. This Essay will access the reasons for decline of such a powerful empire, hit with the ‘Justinian Plague’ and eventually deteriorating after Justinian death . This saw the end to any last element of any Roman Authority in Europe. Military Triumphs During Justinian’s reign he was able to conquer and take over many parts of Europe expanding his Byzantium Empire, which was a huge start in reviving Roman Authority. He took back a huge amount of territory that was once belonged to the Roman Empire before Barbarian invasions in fourth and fifth century in Western Europe including Northern Africa and Italy.
Medieval feudalism had occurred because of the political disorder that the end of the Roman Empire left behind as well as the invasions and rise of barbarian empires like The Carolingians . These changes in western Europe had created a scrambled political system and a new system had to grow out of it. When the roman empire disappeared, the way it governed and reformed the places it ruled, had gone with it. So without a political system to follow there is no order whatsoever. As the roman empire disintegrated invasions and civil wars had become greater .
For one, Rome was unable to govern its excessively large empire, which set the beginning of a steady economic decline. Moreover, not only did the invasion of the barbarians on Western Rome cause
Then Rome sent to oppose Hannibal. Avoiding any decisive encounter with the Carthaginian troops, they nevertheless succeeded in keeping Hannibal at bay, and giving the Romans the opportunity to recover from their military reverses. Hannibal wintered at Gerontium, and then he took up a position at Cannae on the Aufidus River. There he almost completely annihilated a Roman army of more than 50,000 men. Carthaginian losses were about 6700 men.
In our text The Roman Empire by Chester Starr, he states that “The Roman Empire, after all, was an impossibility.” (Starr, C.G. 3). Indeed, the management of such a large and vast Empire came with several problems. (1) He had to secure the northern frontiers against attack. Civil wars had involved the army and had led to a weakening of the frontiers of the border.
From 1918 to 1944, Eastern Europe was dominated by great empires, such as the Habsburg and Ottoman empires, but almost overnight, that structure toppled, leaving a power vacuum. During the years between World War I and World War II, Eastern Europe looked to the West for a suc... ... middle of paper ... ...ge Anglo-Soviet relations and conceded much of Eastern Europe. However, it was beneficial to the British and the Americans to sacrifice the region because they needed evidence to define the Soviet Union and communism as the enemy. Soviet-backed communist expansion was not inevitable, but it was greatly aided by international factors and Eastern European domestic factors. Bibliography Ash, Timothy.
His first challenge to conquest in the West was to end warfare in the Persian Empire. The two empires had been long time rivals in the Middle East and had battled often (Norwich-A Short History of Byzantium,27). During the 400?fs, both the Romans and the Persians struggled to cope with invasions from outside groups. But in 502, conflict re-ignited between them. From 502-505, the Byzantines, led by Justinian fought the Persians and then again from 527-532.
The reason which seems most compelling is a holistic one which considers multiple factors. Thinking in this way, the fall was most likely caused by circumstances which lead to a breakdown of the centralized military and tributary complex producing inherent limitations on the abilities of the army. The state was no longer able to preserve its borders and it was finally overwhelmed by invading barbarian tribes. Though the invasion of the Roman Empire’s frontier is probably the central problem, many theories exist to explain how Rome first got into trouble. The somewhat outdated, but nevertheless fascinating, theory for the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is the wide spread use of lead pipes in urban centers used for the transportation of drinking water.
The attempts to assimilate by Germanic tribes into Roman territory also played a significant role in this chaos. In addition, the economy suffered considerably. An increased inflation resulted from “Diocletian’s attempts to establish a reliable currency” (Kagan 154). Romans struggled to pay their taxes, and subsequently grew resentful of the emperor. The economic differences that existed between the more rural West and commercial East further distanced the two empires from the others affairs.
Shortly after, the males lost their willingness to defend and the empire had to recruit unreliable mercenaries to fight in war. Unlike the successful army of the past, these mercenaries did not have true loyalty to Rome. Because of constant warfare, the Romans had heavy military spending. The Roman Empire had become too large to control effortlessly. Families and soldiers in parts of the Roman Empire adopted local customs.