It has affected 18 percent of pregnant woman worldwide. ( Healthline,2014).Women who are already diagnosed with diabetes think that they are at high risk for Gestational diabetes, but this could rarely be the case. The cause of this complication is still unknown but hormones can be the main factor in why it develops. When a woman is pregnant she produces more excessive hormones, In time the hormones may interfere with the action of insulin and without insulin working properly blood glucose levels are increased causing gestational diabetes(healthline,2014). Various ethnicities of women who develop Gestational diabetes are Caucasion, African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islanders.
While the pancreas initially keeps up with the added demand by making more insulin, over time, the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin when blood sugar levels increase (Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011).Gestational diabetes can develop when a woman is pregnant. Pregnant women make hormones that can lead to insulin resistance. All women have insulin resistance late in their pregnancy. If the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin during pregnancy, a woman develops gestational diabetes.
Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes are the main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs in people before the age of 30 while type 2, the most common type, occurs after this age. Gestational diabetes occurs in women only during pregnancy, but it leads to a risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. They all have to do with a lack or resistance of insulin, therefore, diabetics have to prick their finger, wear an insulin pump, or get insulin injections to keep it under control. (Mayo Clinic, 2013) Diabetes may seem like an awful disease to have, but if it is monitored well the risks of major complications are greatly decreased.
(IHC, 2013) Any woman might develop gestational diabetes during her pregnancy. However, there are certain risk factors that increase your chance of developing gestational diabetes. Those risk factors include: overweight, family history of diabetes, being of an ethnic group with an increased risk for gestational diabetes, older than twenty-five, if you have had pre-diabetes or high glucose, previously had gestational diabetes. (IHC, 2013) Women with gestational diabetes often have no symptoms. For this reason, experts recommend a glucose screening test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.
Pregnancy is affected by diabetes Mellitus. Many changes that take place during pregnancy make controlling blood sugar more difficult for a woman who has diabetes. Changes in the levels and types of hormones produced during pregnancy can cause insulin resistance, increasing the body’s requirements for insulin. Poorly controlled diabetes may endanger the fetus as well as the woman. With proper adjustments in insulin the risks lessen.
Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by impaired ability to metabolize carbohydrates, usually caused by a deficiency of insulin resistance, occurring in pregnancy (Seibel, 2009). After the baby is delivered the disorder disappears but in few cases it has returned as type 2 diabetes. There are many factors that increase the risk in women to acquire the disorder, being overweight prior to becoming pregnant, a family history of diabetes, having too much amniotic fluid, and having sugar in your urine are just some of them (Namak, 2010). During a normal pregnancy tissue resistance to insulin is present, and weight gain and presence of placental hormones can contribute to this insulin resistance ( Gutierrez, 2007). Pregnant women require two to three times more insulin than a woman who is not pregnant, and the insulin production and increased tissue resistance causes this glucose intolerance or increased blood sugar levels or gestational diabetes ( Gutierrez, 2007).
Diabetes is a disease that affects the blood glucose level in which causes them to be above normal. There are three types of diabetes type 1, type 2, and gestational. As previously mentioned type 1 diabetes people are unable to produce insulin, type 2 diabetes does not produce enough insulin, and gestational only occurs in pregnant women. Nonetheless, there is another condition classified as pre-diabetes. A person who is diagnosed as prediabetic means they are at much higher risk of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or stroke.
“Gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy can lead to a greater risk of cardiovascular disease in the newborn such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. This is a result of increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators present during pregnancy” (Petry 2014). The placenta also serves as a buffer to prevent glucose from entering the fetus. In a normal pregnancy the mother supplies the fetus with a constant supply of nutrients via the placenta for growth and development. In the case of gestational diabetes mellitus, there is an excess amount of glucose that is produced in high levels and the placenta is not able to buffer the excess glucose which results in complications t... ... middle of paper ... ...ucose intolerance she also faces the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus in subsequent pregnancies.
In research it is said that 35 years and later is considered the high risk category. There are many dangerous conditions that can be developed when carrying a child such as fetal/infant morbidity, as well as many other medical conditions that can arise during pregnancy and the delivery phase. These outcomes normally occur in older women, making it harder for older women to carry a child because of the complications. Some of these outcomes can include premature birth, long term deficits in the mother and child, or mortality and fetal neonatal morality. These outcomes occur very infrequently, but are more likely to occur to older mothers than to younger mothers.
Women who are obese (and oftentimes have diabetes) are more likely to give birth to overweight babies (CITE). Women who gain an abnormally large amount of weight during pregnancy (often developing gestational diabetes) will give birth to children who have a higher probability of becoming obese (Harvard). There are also women who are not obese, do not gain a substantial amount of weight, but still mistreat their bodies enough during pregnancy to do damage to the baby, such as smoking. Women who smoke during pregnancy have children who are 50% more likely than children whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy to become obese (Birb, Harv). Childhood obesity is not only a problem in developed countries such as the United States; it is also a problem in third world countries.