Women’s liberation became encompassed within a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, exploring themes found cross-culturally such as patriarchy, discrimination, and objectification. In addition to the cultural anthropological focus on gender inequality, feminis... ... middle of paper ... ... and views of studied societies. Basic anthropological assumptions were questioned when it became evident that the male-centered field had neglected to document women and gender as important aspects of social life. While it is clear that several feminist anthropologists sought to correct the imbalance of knowledge by focusing solely on women and their significant impact upon the development of humankind, the theory has evolved to focus on gender as it relates to power, class, societal construction, and sexuality among others. Works Cited Kuklick, Henrika.
Lerner argued academics should create new levels and transitions in historical research, such as sexuality, gender, and female consciousness. She also advocated to analyze research through factors of “race, class, ethnicity, and possibly religion (intersectionality).” Once society has hit this pinnacle will we see the true history of women--a history which will be an “ongoing functioning in the male-defined world, on their [women] own terms.” Are Lerner’s works a sound contribution to historiography? To comprehend this question one must search her ideas and works of the field. In one article she wrote, “The striking fact about the historiography of women is the general neglect of the subject...[by] historians. As long as historians held
As society adjusts, so do its definitions of gender. Politics is the other key word in Scott’s statement that must be defined. Politics, according to Scott in “Women’s History”, is not just formal government but all relationships involving unequal distributions of power. Scott uses this broad definition of politics in order to explain the “cultural determination of the terms of sexual difference”. In other words this definition allows for a more complete explanation of what has shaped society’s e... ... middle of paper ... ...he role of historians should be to record history and its significance.
Woman’s relations to artistic and social structures as been different to that of male artist, to discover the history of women and art is in part to account for the ways art history if written, exposing its underlying values, its assumptions, its silences and its prejudice (Parker &Pollock 2013, 3). Works by famous feminist historic writers such as Linda Nochlin, Pollock and Norma Broude, and others has been focused on the issue of women in art history. This paper aims at examining the literature around woman in art history form the 19th century through 20th century. Feminist inquiry in art history began in 1971 with Linda Nochlin article “why have there no great women artist” (Peterson & Mathew 1987, 325), to answer her question she stress that, arts is not a free autonomous activity of a super endowed individual influenced by previous arts or social factors, but rather art is an integral element of structure and is determined by specific social institutions such as arts academies, patrons, patriarchal culture or the myth of the divine creator (Peterson &Mathew 1987, 325). Nonetheless, Parker and Pollock took a fundamentally new direction from earlier surveys, evaluating women’s historical and ideological positions in relations to art ().
To argue that gender is not socially constructed would be to say that all people, for example, that are biologically female have the same goals. However, this cannot be true because within the sphere of being female, that individual person varies from the next in their race, class, and/or sexuality, each of which affect their goals and perspectives differently from their sister, friend, and neighbor. One’s gender identity refers to his or her perception of self as a male or female, as well as being masculine or feminine. Because masculinity and femininity are fluid, rather than static, they are dependent on the perspective of the beholder. A person’s perspective is often influenced by their surroundings as well as values with which they were raised, both of which are never identical between two people.
Finding a simple or concrete definition of gender maybe near impossible. Gender roles are what men and woman learn and internalize as the way they are supposed to act. These roles are commonly thought of as natural rather than a construction of culture. Gender is thought to flow from sex, rather then being a matter of what the culture does with sex. This theory is widely and exhaustively debated, according to Wood “Sex is based on biology; Gender is socially and psychologically constructed” (Wood 19).
Gender is a made up construct of society. Not all societies have the constructs of gender, some societies even recognize a third gender. Gender, as defined by The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, is “Sex is the biological category, whereas gender is the culturally shaped expression of sexual difference: the masculine way in which men should behave and the feminine way in which women should behave” (Blackburn2008). We all have our own identity, which is defined by The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine, as “The perception of self that develops as a child differentiates from parents and family and takes a place in society” (Kent2006). So when referencing gender identity, we are asking how one views themselves through society’s predetermined genders, which in the US are just male and female.
Feminist art history-A literature review This paper aims at exploring the works of some famous feminist art historians such as Linda Nochlin, Norma Broude, Griselda Pollock, and Rozsika Parker, who focused their literature on the issue of women and art history from the 19th century through the 20th century. Broude states that female feminist art history students are of the belief that they have to rewrite art (Broude & Garrard 1982, 183). However, Broude and Garrard challenges this assumption by inquiring the “what and how” female feminist art history students would go about achieving the task of rewriting art, and what led to this notion of rewriting the history of art and what they intend to achieve by rewriting the history of art (Broude & Garrard 1982, 183). The notion of rewriting art history can be obtained from the accounts of Pollock and Parker that there have been variance in the affiliation and which are a product of social structures (Pollock & Parker 2013, 3). Thus in order to expose these differences art history has to be revamped.
Feminists and Media Stereotypes The media portrays feminists in unflattering ways. Largely because of the media portrayal, the word 'feminist' usually evokes images of crass, butch, men-hating, very masculine women. Many women believe in the feminist doctrine, but they would never consider themselves as a feminist because they cannot relate to the images of crass, butch, men-hating, masculine women. In fact, it has only been within the past year that I've been able to accept the fact that I am a feminist and that my preconceived images of feminists are merely media stereotypes. I'm now able to admit I care more about my own rights than whether or not someone will assume I fit the media stereotype of a feminsit.
In his article Devor states, “People use femininity or masculinity to claim and communicate their membership in their assigned, or choose, sex or gender. Others recognize [individuals] more on the basis of these characteristics than on the basis of sex characteristics,” (505). This quote insinuates that in order for society to recognized one as male or female one must meet the requirements of what it means to be feminine or masculine because the structure of one 's anatomy alone is not significant enough to matter. People fear that by failing to exhibit these set gender traits they will fail to fit into a category of male or female. In Nelson’s article she announces how, “Tall women tell [her] they won’t wear heels because they don’t want to appear taller than their husbands or boyfriends, even by an inch,” (525).