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The Rhetoric of Terror

analytical Essay
3029 words
3029 words
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The Rhetoric of Terror

From the writer: In the wake of September 11, the United States retreated into intense patriotism. However, love for this country is something more than hanging an American flag outside your home. True love of America is something more; it is civic virtue, practicing good citizenship. Vote on Election Day, read the newspaper and write letters to members of Congress. Failing to take advantage of freedom and democracy may lead to the rise of evil.

From the teacher, Vivian Rice: The events of September 11, 2001, dramatically affected the work in many of our writing classes during the 2001-2002 academic year. For many students from that morning on, the semester was an emotional time of worry, grief, and finally questioning. Joshua Lax’s essay was written in response to a research argument assignment. Lax used the opportunity to consider why and how Osama bin Laden was able to inspire his followers to accept his vision of the world. Lax draws on his understanding of the theory of media and propaganda from his Newhouse classes as well as our class’s activities in writing this piece.

From the editor, Patrick Dacey: Joshua Lax rips through the images that have plagued Americans since September 11th. But he does not antagonize the media; instead he focuses on how propaganda, rhetoric, and language are used to produce social change. The piece reveals reasons why America has become a target for war through the power of an outspoken, persuasive leader. Whether your opinions on the war are different, based on fear, or just hidden; Lax does not shy away from his views and uses powerful research to make his opinions known, and in a sense, justified.

The final test of a leader is that he leaves behind him in ...

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....S. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. 25 November 2001 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/bgn/.

"Encyclopedia Britannica: Lebanon." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 25 November 2001 http://www.search.eb.com/bol/topic?tmap_id=118138000&tmap_typ=gd.

Finch, Lynette. "Psychological Propaganda: The War of Ideas During the First Half of the Twentieth Century." Armed Forces & Society: An Interdisciplinary Journal 26.3 (2000): 367.

Plato. "Gorgias." The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961. 229-307.

Ranstorp, Magnus. "Terrorism in the Name of Religion." Journal of International Affairs 50.1 (1996): 41-63.

Shomar, David. "United States and the Muslim World: How We See Each Other." The University Forum: The Global Response to Terrorism. Byrd Library, Syracuse. 18 October 2001.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that propaganda is the management of opinions and attitudes by the direct manipulation of social suggestion rather than altering other conditions in the environment. plato refuted the science of rhetoric in his masterpiece gorgias.
  • Analyzes how lippmann's public opinion theory has become the basis for modern propaganda and propaganda warfare.
  • Quotes professor lynette finch from the university of the sunshine coast in australia on modern warfare and how propagandists must convince the masses that the war is the enemy's fault.
  • Analyzes how osama bin laden is a manifestation of these propaganda theories.
  • Analyzes how osama bin laden convinces his would-be followers to take up his war on the united states, fight the arab governments he claims the us manipulates, and help him expel them from their territory.
  • Analyzes how bin laden has released video-taped statements on the destruction of the west and a call for muslims to take up the fight.
  • Explains walter lippmann's theory of the pseudo-environment and the hardships faced by would-be terrorists in their home countries.
  • Analyzes how the number of fundamentalist movements of all religious affiliations tripled between the 1960s and the 1990s.
  • Analyzes how osama bin laden's attempt to build a pseudo-environment is evident in his recruiting video. arab governments have betrayed allah and allowed "crusaders and jews" to enter the holy lands of islam.
  • Analyzes how the ciao responds to the terrorist attacks against the united states.
  • Analyzes how joshua lax's essay reveals why america has become a target for war through the power of an outspoken, persuasive leader.
  • Analyzes how osama bin laden, alleged leader of the al qaeda network, became something of a new age hitler.
  • Analyzes how osama bin laden and his network shelter the crisis and provide an answer to these problems. bin laden molds a pseudo-environment in which the united states conspires with israel and the moderate arab governments to prevent the full glory of islam.
  • Analyzes how bin laden constructs his pseudo-environment by accusing the jews of manipulating the american government for their own benefit.
  • Cites finch, lynette, and plato's "gorgias." ranstorp, magnus and shomar, david.
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