Conversely, students’ approaches to study influence the ways in which they perceive evaluation and assessment. When students participate in formative assessment, there is opportunity to give feedback to students. The provision of feedback is one of the primary functions of formative assessment. A further function of the formative assessment is to provide feedback to the mentors. Concerning these, Bloxham and Boyd (2007) argued that “for assessment to function in a formative way that supports students’ future learning, the findings have to adjust teaching”.
When writing objectives there are certain verbs that can be used to help convey meaning. For example, when used in test instructions the verb select' directs students to perform an observable and measurable specific action as opposed to a verb that might describe an internal state such as analyze'. The teacher can determine what content she should apply to the objective. The objective needs to be a skill that the student could use in life and be able to use in content. Competency based instruction should lead to effective instruction by the teacher.
The classroom should entail structure, a sense of community, establish routines and procedures, and adequate resources. Some influential resources are classroom libraries, peer tutors, and basic technology. In addition, teachers need to recognize, research, and appropriately address any non-desired behavior. Teachers do have the power to make a difference in a student behavior. Lastly fluency, accuracy, and even error corrections should correlate to the objective of the lessons.
However in order for teachers to be able to lead students to learn, it is only logical to consider that teachers must know how learning actually transpires. Towards the goal of helping teachers develop a strong understanding of the different theories that attempt to explain how learning occurs in an educational setting, Marlowe and Canestrari (2006) present excerpts from the writings of different educators and education researchers which explain the dynamics behind being able to learn. These include the work of B.F. Skinner on behaviorism, of Bandura, Ross, and Ross on imitation of aggression models, of David Willingham on cognition and memory, and of Witte-Townsend and Hill on relational consciousness. The importance of these theories on how learning occurs is expounded on by Sontag (2009) in her discussion of learning theories that are applicable to students in the 21st century. According to Sontag (2009) being able to explain how students learn take teachers is a critical step that an educator must make in order to be able to help students learn.
Below, I will discuss how these ideas can be combined for success. As essentialism states, the teacher needs to have control in the instruction of the classroom. Lecturing and supervising the improvement of skills are great ways to teach materials. A case in point here shows one of the teaching fundamentals, of the core subjects reading, writing, math, and nature sciences. This gives you the intellectual discipline to solve problems that involve complex ideas.
This approach support the concept of distinguishing whose responsibility it is to learn. As stated by Weimer (2013), students will depend on teachers to identify to identify the information that needs to be learned, prescribe the learning methods, and assess how well the student has grasp the material (p. 15). The concept of learning needs to be a shared responsibility between both the teacher and the student. Self-directed learning gives the responsibility to the student with the belief that students can be responsible for learning on their own and gives the responsibility to the teacher of properly educating
It is systematically and actively thinking about what happens in the classroom and trying to improve it (Opp-Beckman & Klinghammer, 2006). It is considered as research process and constant examination of teaching to develop insights that are helpful to reconstruct individual and collective professional practice (Schön, 1987). It involves thinking, monitoring, evaluating, reflecting, revising, and learning about the teaching process in cyclic manner and developing the habit of talking with the self and others for the purpose of professional development and effectiveness of teaching (Kidd & Czerniawski, 2010). It is about moving away from standardized form of practice towards more informed and value-driven one (Thompson & Thompson, 2008 in Moyles, 2010). It is a kind of professional enquiry and development which is so widely advocated these days by educationalists and policy makers (Grenfell, 1998).
So for learning to occur the student must have a meaningful experience and the teacher’s role is to create the environment which transforms data into knowledge. When the instruction takes on meaning in the eyes of the student the data will transform into knowledge. Worldview & Philosophy of Life “I can't go back to yesterday because I was a different person then.” ― Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland Many p... ... middle of paper ... ...pon two principles, knowing the student, and knowing myself. By knowing the student I can better understand the environment in which they developed and current environment in which they judge value and meaning. By knowing myself, I ensure that I am where I need to be mentally, emotionally and spiritually.
Educational researchers are drawn to Carr and Kemiss’ understanding of action research because the primary focus of the theory is that of the teacher/practitioner. The idea and ‘modis operandi’ of any teacher/practitioners practise’ is to use self-reflection in day to day planning, and as a way of working, it is very close to the notion of reflective practice coined by Donald Schön (1983). I will be using Action Research as a method, because I want to change an existing practice that is already present in my current educational establishment. The systems and structures that I have taken over are not as effective as they could be. I need to implement a range of new initiatives, but I am unsure of how effective the new practice will be or how it may develop.
By listening to students’ feedback, teachers would be able to perceive their classroom practices from a different perspective and also embody the participative and collaborative process in classroom. To support this, Kemmis and McTaggart (1982) stated “a distinctive feature of action research is that those affected by planned changes have the primary responsibility for deciding on courses of action which seem likely to lead to improvement, and for evaluating the results strategies tried out in practice" (p. 6). Therefore, this step is crucial as it provides the basis for the revised plan on the second cycle (Lewin,