In order to examine scientists get embryos in two different way. For countless numbers of couples in vitro fertilization is the only way to have a child. During this procedure, a couple’s sperms and eggs are fertilized in a culture dish. Next, the eggs will develop into embryos, which are then implanted in the female. Nevertheless, embryos are usually frozen and stored for future use.
It all began with the team from the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, Scotland led by Dr. Ian Wilmut. Wilmut and his colleagues wanted to see if specialized cells could be reprogrammed into thinking that they were not specialized and develop all over again, thus creating a clone (Wilmut et al. 810). Cloning, as defined by the Cloning Prohibition Act of 1997, "means the production of a precise genetic copy of a molecule (including DNA), cell, tissue, plant, animal, or human" (4). Before this experiment, it was known that once an egg cell from a mammal was fertilized, it would begin to divide and differentiate, first into an embryo, and then into other specialized cell types like skin and organs.
But South Korean scientists have found a way to get stem cells by cloning embryos. In laboratories, each egg cell's DNA is removed and replaced with another cell's DNA. This process is called nuclear transfer. The cell is grown in a culture dish and starts to divide, until it gets to be 3 to 5 days old. The egg is now called a blastocyst, which is basically a cluster of stem cells with an outer shell.
After being fused together, researchers believe that the chemical machinery inside the egg cell goes to work to reprogram the mammary cell genes into starting over again, as if they were brought together as sperm and egg. The cell divides, produces an embryo, fetus and a newborn that is identical to the animal from which it was cloned. Although the United States government prohibits government funds being spent on human cloning research, and ethicists decry it, nevertheless, human cloning could be achieved, Neal First said. First is a professor of animal biotechnology and reproductive biology at the University of Wisconsin. Overall, there is no apparent reason to clone humans.
In December 2002, a religious group of Raelin claimed that a human baby was cloned but it had not been scientifically confirmed. In 1962 John Gurdon claimed to have cloned South African frogs from the nucleus differentiated adult intestinal cells. In 1964, F.E Stewart grew a complete carrot plant using the carrot root cells and to prove that cell cloning was possible. Francis Crick and James Watson were the first pioneers to discover double helix structure of DNA in 1953. It increased the scientific research of learning about human genetic codes and discovers the possibility of cloning.
Hall and Stillman "selected embryos that were abnormal because they came from eggs that had been fertilized by more than one sperm" (Elmer-Dewitt 38), because the embryos were defective, it would have been impossible for the scientist to actually clone another person. They did however, split the embryos into separate cells, as a result creating separate and identical clones. They began experimenting on seventeen of the defective embryos and "when one of those single-celled embryos divided into two cell…the scientists quickly separated the cells, creating two different embryos with the same genetic information" (Elmer-Dewitt 38). The cells are coated with a protective covering "called a zona pellucida, that is essential to development" (Elmer-Dewitt 38), which was stripped away and replaced with a gel-like substance made from seaweed that Hall had been experimenting with. The scientists were able to produce forty-eight clones, all of which died within six days.
Robert G. Edwards’ beginning stages of his years of research. Dr. Edwards’ began his research in the late 1950s, and his first obstacle was access to oocytes that were at the correct stage for in vitro fertilization. It was not until 1965 that he discovered human oocytes, “required 24 hours of incubation in vitro, before they would initiate their maturation process” (Nobelprize.org 4). Next, he had to find conditions that would encourage the fertilization of oocytes. He used the buffer conditions identified by Barr D. Bavister to activate human spermatozoa and fertilize in vitro oocytes in 1969, however the fertilized oocytes were not progressing beyond the second stage, which lead him to try to use oocytes that completed their maturation process inside the body.
The freezing of gametes and embryos just happens to be the new cure people are turning to. Sometimes couples’ egg and sperm won’t mesh together. The couple then turns to in-vitro fertilization and creates about 10 embryos. 3 out of the 10 embryos are inserted back into the woman’s uterus hoping that at least one would take. Now the question is what happens to the 7 embryos that are left?
The articles concerning Uterus Transplantation are about woman who suffered from infertility and wanted to become impregnated. Surgeons in Swedish have successfully transplanted wombs donated from relatives into nine women and they will soon try to become pregnant. Several surgeons tried to conduct this procedure; however, all of them were not as successful as the surgeons in Swedish. The transplants began in September 2012 where the Swedish surgeons successfully transplanted wombs donated from relatives into nine women, who would try to become pregnant. In 2002, a uterus transplant in Saudi Arabia failed after blood clotting caused by organ’s circulation to fail.
This procedure is called micromanipulation. If the genetic material may cause a genetic disorder it is discarded and the others returned. In essence, the procedure is " intended to weed out genetically defective embryos before they have a chance to develop".3 More specifically, the woman is induced through medication to ovulate in high quantity and the eggs are collected. Next, standard IVF takes place. Three days later, each embryo contains about eight cells and is ready to be biopsied.