So to Merton crime will erupt because of the pursuit of the American dream is obstructed for some people. Therefore people must adapt. (Pg.238 Think Sociology) Functionalism claims that deviance helps create collective stability by presenting justifications of non-normative and normative behaviors. More or less key points of deviance in society is that the situation creates understanding to interference and recalibration of society. Therefore some see deviance allows groups to unite around their worldview, sometimes targeted by way of deviant.
In those works, Durkheim argued that crime and deviance is “an integral part of all healthy societies”. He reasoned that crime and deviance are not only inevitable, but also functional for society and that they will only be considered dysfunctional when they reach abnormally high or low levels. His theory of functionalism rooted from his amazement with how society was able to keep itself intact amidst the social, political and economic upheaval provoked by the Industrial Revolution. He found that the social glue holding everything in place was: value consensus, social solidarity and collective conscience; and that crime and deviance had a role in this equation. “Deviance” is a wide-ranging term used by sociologists referring to behaviour that is off-tangent from social normalities, and that “crime” is a variant of deviance, only that it “comprises activities or actions which are deemed so damaging to the interests of the community” (Pease, 1994) that some form of identification and action must be done against the perpetrator.
Through the fates of Lurie and Raskolnikov, Dostoevsky and Coetzee make self-policing the most important factor in societal justice. Encyclopedia Britannica Defines Justice as the concept of a proper proportion between a person’s deserts (what is merited) and the good and bad things that befall or are allotted to him or her. There is a duality to the idea of justice because it acts as a reward and a deterrent. It makes sure the people who abide by rules get treated “justly” but also insures an example out of the people who break laws so that the amount of law-breakers dissipates. Judgment’s importance stems from its dual-concept base.
Finally, the paper will conclude with the strengths and weaknesses of Merton’s strain theory and an examination of the criminological theories and social policies it has influenced. To gain an accurate understanding of strain theories it is best to first examine their intellectual foundations. One of the most important influences on the development of strain theories was sociologist Emile Durkheim. A structural functionalist, Durkheim argued that deviance and crime were not only normal, but also served a function in society. Durkheim believed that crime served the purpose of displaying to members of society what behaviours and actions are considered unacceptable as determined by societal co... ... middle of paper ... ...y are bombarded from birth that they should desire and pursue money, power, fame, and success.
Becker also outlines moral problems He questions where the researchers sympathies should lie, should they side with the 'underdog' or should they judge criminal behaviour as wrong? To evaluate the contribution of the labelling theorists to the study of the sociology of deviance, it can be said that it depends on how the theory is viewed. If the theory is seen as ' a theory with all the achievements and obligations that go with the title' then it has many flaws. But if, as Becker suggests, we attempt to consider the theory as just a way of looking at deviance, then the contribution can be great, as it opened up a study of the individual after he has committed an act of deviance. It can be concluded that labelling theory continues its usefulness, as long as deviant behaviour continues to exist.
In terms of punishment, Durkheim saw the criminal law and the punishment system as a way for society to express its rules and values. This meant that moral boundaries were outlined and sustained through the assertion of penalties for crimes. Durkheim sees the role of law and punishment to be important for the solidarity of society as a whole. (Ibid., p81) Here, society has a... ... middle of paper ... ...decrease or work to control crime. (Garland, 1990, p23-6) Durkheim sees punishment as a social institution, which is first and last a matter of morality and social solidarity.
The levels of guilt that we feel for violating certain social obligations can and will vary depending on the environment that we are raised in .This leads Shermer into introducing the most simple and effective way of measuring morality in an action. Shermer defines an action as being morally correct only if the action increases an individual’s chances of survival and flourishing. The idea is to stretch the boundaries of the moral sphere with the help of science and its tools of reason. He then goes on to state how we would not be as far as we are in the progression of morality today if
To establish a peaceful world is one of the core goals of the society. Researches of many scholars trend to find the root of the conflicts. On the other hand, others offer the solutions how the world can become less disputed. These two researchers, Robert Wright and Joshua Greene, try to find ways in order to create a conflict-free world. I think both of them have strong arguments why conflicts happen; however, since Wright’s arguments are stronger and doable, the solution that he proposes is better than Greene’s.
I am going to be assessing the usefulness of sub cultural theories in understanding crime and deviance. The functionalist suggested that understanding deviance lies in the studying it function for society rather than the individual itself. Also consensus is essential for society to function. All functionalist therefore argues that forms of social control are necessary to check deviant and to maintain social order. Merton theory of anomie is based on the ideas of the functionalist.
This theory was not only used by incorporating the best tools but more importantly, to critique what is happening within the research context. Since the community studied is Bautista, a resettlement area and which has an existing power structure, a critical analysis and decisional approach were adapted using the case study design to examine the locale. Critical theory questions the structures and it assumes that science is objective and “value-free”. Its goal is the emancipation of people from domination (Quebral, 1992 as cited in Drilon, 1998). Critical theorists such as Karl Marx and Jürgen Habermas are critics of unequal social conditions specifically groups that are excluded from power or from free access to information.