On the 31st of October 1517 was the beginning of the reformation when Martin Luther Posted up his Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Roman Catholic Church and published in Wittenberg, Germany. The Reformation Became the Basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. Luther had far-reaching political, economic and social effects. But the main question is why Martin Luther was able to successfully challenge the church of its religious and political authority? After evaluating the main reasons why Luther had success challenging the church, it is to all appearances that the circumstances were in his favour and available to him during that time. To confirm this hypothesis, the three circumstances will be examined in order for it to be correct.
This essay gives a brief outline of the major developments in the role of the Papacy between the Early Church and the present day. It will cover four aspects. The development of the papacy as a temporal ruler, Papal elections, the Curia and the development of the ‘mission role’ of the Papacy. It will explore how the papacy changed from being an organisation that had the influence to appoint kings and arrange state borders to one with a billion followers. These followers see the papacy as being responsible for the administration, pastoral and spiritual care of their membership.
At the start of the sixteenth century, the Reformation had put an ungracious end to the dependent unification that had prevailed under the Roman Catholic Church. In response to the growing sense of corruption in the church, the reformation began. Many people began opposing views of how Christian practices were expressed, which led to the formation and spread of Protestantism. While the Pope is head of the Catholic Church, Protestantism is a general term that refers to Christianity that is not subject to papal authority. (1.)
During Luther’s early life he faced a severe inner crisis. When he sinned he looked for comfort in confession and followed the penance, the fasting, prayer and observances that the church directed him. But, he found no peace of mind and worried about his salvation. But reading St. Paul’s letters he came to believe that salvation came though faith in Christ. Faith is a free gift, he discovered, it cannot be earned. His studies led him to a conclusion that, “Christ was the only mediator between God and a man and that forgiveness of sin and salvation are given by god’s grace alone” (Martin Luther, 01). Historians agree that, “this approach to theology led to a clash between Luther and the Church officials, precipitating the dramatic events of Reformation”.
The Protestant Reformation Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century is one of the most complex movements in European history since the fall of the Roman Empire. The Reformation truly ends the Middle Ages and begins a new era in the history of Western Civilization. The Reformation ended the religious unity of Europe and ushered in 150 years of religious warfare. By the time the conflicts had ended, the political and social geography in the west had fundamentally changed. The Reformation would have been revolutionary enough of itself, but it coincided in time with the opening of the Western Hemisphere to the Europeans and the development of firearms as effective field weapons.
The protestant reformation of 16th century had both: immediate and long term effects. Thus, we can see that it was a revolution of understanding the essence of religion, and of what God is. The protestant reformation is said to a religious movement. However, it also influenced the economical, political and social life of people. The most global, short term effect of the reformation was the reevaluation of beliefs, and, as a result, the loss of authority of the Holy Roman Empire. The long term effects were: the emergence of new heretical movements, the declining of papacy, thus the reevaluation of people’s view on the church and life values.
In my essay I will attempt to give an overview of the many positive and negative changes that the reformation groups and individuals had to Roman Catholic Church and other churches. The reformation was a religious movement that started officially by Martin Luther challenging the sale of the indulgences in Roman Church.
Luther’s address provided religious complications that proved to be fundamental to his thesis. This fact was visible through his application of the doctrine of the priesthood of believers to the precedent set by the “three walls” of the Roman Catholic Church. Of the three, the first wall, noting the difference between secular and spiritual classes, was eliminated by the doctrine of the priesthood of believers. Due to the fact that the believers were in the priesthood, there was no distinction between a peasant and a priest; everyone was equal in God’s eyes. The second of the three walls alleged that Scripture could only be interpreted by the pope. Coincidentally, Luther found no proof of this in the Bible, but instead found several passages that said common man could interpret Scripture. The last of the walls was the notion that a council could only be summoned by the pope, meaning that the church could not have orders dictated to it by a secular council. By using history and Scripture itself, Luther eradicated the belief, stating that it is the church that should be subjected to the state. Through Luther’s ‘tearing down’ of the three walls, the Roman Catholic Church’s world completely changed; stripped...
What shapes a church’s theology? Tradition? Reason? Experience? Word of God? On the Eve of the Reformation, the Medieval Church’s theology was built upon the foundation that consisted of traditions, rituals, reason, and good works, meanwhile placing scripture at par with the rest of these practices of the day. Due to these practices of the church, the majority of the laity was disconnected and not educated in the Christian faith. An educated young monk named Martin Luther, struggled with deep spiritual despair because of these church practices, but one day he came across Romans 3 (verses 23-25), which transformed his life, which in turn changed all Christendom. This idea of one being saved by faith alone in God’s grace alone of Christ alone taught in Scripture to alone lead him to write pages upon pages on this foundation and one of these pieces was called Luther’s Small Catechism to help educate the laity. Luther defines a catechism “contents represent the minimum of knowledge required of a Christian. Whoever does not possess it should not be reckoned among Christians” . Charles P. Arand in his book titled That I May Be His Own gives an overview of Luther’s catechisms. This paper will look at Luther’s theology found in his Small Catechism.
Is there a relationship between humanism and Calvinism, and if so how did the movements influence each other during the years of the Reformation? This is the question that author, Robert D. Linder, is seeking to prove and remedy in his article, “Calvinism and Humanism: The First Generation.” Robert D. Linder inclusively examines how historians in the past converge to prove a relationship between humanism and the Lutheran Reformation, “but in case of humanism and Calvinism no consensus has been reach concerning this problem” (p.167). Therefore, the purpose of the article is to enhance and inquire the historical underlying connection between the two movements through an assessment of the life of three important first generation leaders of the Reformed Church (p.167). The analysis of three reformers, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and Pierre Viret will be subject to examination to link humanism and Calvinist movements. Moreover, Robert D. Linder wants to distinguish the analysis of Pierre Viret’s life due to new evidence which establishes connections between the two movements.