Genes, or chromosomes, are often referred to as "blueprints" which are passed down from generation to generation. From the study of these hereditary materials, scientists have ventured into the recent, and rather controversial, field of genetic engineering. It is described as the "artificial modification of the genetic code of a living organism", and involves the "manipulation and alteration of inborn characteristics" by humans. Like many other issues, genetic engineering has sparked a heated debate. Some people believe that it has the potential to become the new "miracle tool" of medicine.
The human body is made up of genes from each parent, some being genes we love such as curly hair and blue eyes, or genes that are hereditary making life difficult such as haemophilia. These unwanted genes that contain diseases can be altered by using biotechnology and can be successful by altering either the egg or sperm. Another way to change the formation of genes is to use somatic cells which are a multicellular cell, helping in the formation of the body. Those genes are then cloned into a viral vector. Genetic engineering is the process of manually adding or changing DNA in the genome in an organism.
One of the major problems has been getting the gene into the nucleus of the cell and fitting it in its proper place. On top of that problem, the new gene must function properly like a normal cell would. Many genetic disorders are the effect of a malfunction in a gene. Through gene therapy the malfunctioning gene can be replaced by a working version of the gene that carries out its normal cellular functions. To make things even more difficult on scientists, fixing the DNA in a few cells will not be beneficial for the patient.
Critics may argue that there are moral and ethical problems associated with this novel technique, but for the most part scientists realize the importance this advancement will have. Gene therapy may be the key to curing dozens of diseases, and has endless possibilities, but more research is needed before its safe or accepted as common practice.
Isolation of the vector DNA from the host cell’s DNA and then is purified. Biotechnology products are those that are manufactured by a recombinant DNA Technology which is produced by biotechnology. These products include vaccines, antibiotics, transgenic plants, genetically modified organisms and lastly beverages. Biotechnology is not just one technology but several of them as it can produce an extensive variety of products across a range of industrial sectors like drought-resistant crops, ethanol from fermentation, microorganisms which clean up oil spills and many others. According to Yourgenome.org, Gene therapy is basically when the DNA is introduced into a patient to treat a genetic disease.
From1990 to 2003, scientists worldwide worked on the Human Genome project. They identified the genes that comprises human DNA. The biotechnology applies the science of production of the biological products. It uses techniques that can alter DNA in living organs.it could depend on the transfer of genes from one organ to another. When genes from humans turn back into bacteria the bacteria acts as a factory.
Another molecule of DNA that had also been snipped with the same restriction enzyme was found to have a corresponding sticky end that could combine with the original sticky end to form what scientists call a recombinant DNA molecule. By using restriction enzymes, scientists can cut genes out of chromosomes in order to reinsert them into other ... ... middle of paper ... ...eld of medicine. Both genetic engineering and stem cell technology are essential branches of biotechnology. Genetic engineering is the skillful manipulation of a gene by way of a process other than ordinary reproduction. Stem cells that won’t be denied by immune systems, can divide almost forever, and can alter themselves easily into other cells are used in stem cell technology and hold much promise in the cure of diseases and injuries.
DEFINITIONS “Genetic Engineering, or gene splicing is the scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins” (Source 1). Genetic engineering allows scientists to take the genes of one species and combine them with those of another. Which essentially means that they have the power to completely re-modify an existing creature or even create an entirely new species. This is obviously going to be one of the more controversial issues when it comes to gene splicing because in a way the scientists, through biotechnical means, are playing the role of God.
With other techniques scientists can isolate sections of DNA representing single genes, determine their nucleotide sequences, and reproduce them in the laboratory. This offers the possibility of creating entirely new genes with commercially or medically desirable properties. While the potential benefits of genetic engineering are considerable, so may be the potential dangers. For example, the introduction of cancer-causing genes into a common infectious organism, such as the influenza virus, could be hazardous. We have come to believe that all human beings are equal; but even more firmly, we are taught to believe each one of us is unique.
This is a frequently asked question, presenting valid arguments from both perspectives. Like many Biological predicaments, ethical issues tend to clash with that of unseen medical possibilities, resulting in debates and discussions continuously unfolding on the controversial issue. Genetic Engineering is essentially altering / adding new DNA into an organism, to provide that organism with more desirable traits. Process - desired gene is isolated with restriction enzymes from organism, and then extracted. The gene then undergoes PCR (polymerase chain reaction) where the gene is sequenced and then copied multiple times, to be re - inserted into the new organism (transgenic).