Johnson then once again gave the Southern states freedom to run their state governments. People believed that Johnson was ignoring the former slaves’ rights. This became more and more evident, as the Black Codes began to form in the South. These were the many laws confining the African Americans to what some thought to be slavery except in name. In 1865, when Johnson declared reconstruction to be over, many Republicans, appalled at this, took action by refusing to seat Southerners that had recently been elected into Congress.
The Reconstruction-era was crucial to the development of freedmen and of the social structure in the south; however the Republicans were not successful in all aspects. There were various factors that impeded the success of guaranteed rights to freedmen and to a functional social structure that people in the south would comply with. There were amendments, black codes, reconstruction acts, racial organizations, and many more difficulties that denied freedmen their rights and a working social structure for the southerners. After the Civil War was over and the Reconstruction-era began, changes were made such as the 13th amendment in 1865, which forbid slavery in the United States. Even though slavery was now prohibited, freed blacks were now left alone to struggle finding simple things like a roof to live in and a job to work for.
This plan seemed promising because it was easy access back into the union but Lincoln was assassinated before the plan could be implemented. On March 3, 1865, Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau Bill which cre... ... middle of paper ... ... amendment before they could reenter the Union. In 1868, enough states ratified, and the Fourteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution. The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments had abolished slavery and granted blacks citizenship, but blacks still did not have the right to vote. Radical Republicans feared that black suffrage might be revoked in the future, so they decided to amend the Constitution to solidify this right.
Finally, under Lincoln’s plan, no federal military occupation was required in Southern states. This left the freedmen at the mercy of the states for protection. Congress viewed this plan as far too lenient, and in 1864 passed the Wade-Davis bill. This bill required the majority of voters in each Southern state to take an oath of loyalty; only then could the state hold a convention to repeal secession and abolish slavery. Although Lincoln’s plan may have been too lenient, this bill would have been far too harsh and delayed readmission to the Union for a very long time.
It created a political situation tantamount to slavery and it also placed the same southerners in political power who had power before the war (6)! Radical Republicans attempted to developed political equality for freedmen by the passage of Reconstruction Amendments: 13th- ended slavery, 14th gave equal protection under the law and 15th gave blacks right to vote. Unfortunately South, where most slaves were located, refused to ratify 14th amendment, altogether it was passed after the first Reconstruction Act as states were mandated to ratify it in order to be readmitted to the Union. At the end of the Reconstruction blacks still suffered from the political inequality in one way or the
They were made to enforce a lower-class labor force that would help in rebuilding the economy which had been destroyed by the Civil War. The codes prohibited African Americans from owning firearms, and imposed harsh punishments for misdemeanor crimes. Any freedman, African American, or mulatto was liable to "be hired out by the sheri... ... middle of paper ... ...s as it did not provide African American's with their rights, resulted in whites terrorizing African Americans, and forced freed slaves to rely on white farmers for shelter and for occupations. While Reconstruction was aimed at creating a tolerant society, it actually resulted in a lopsided society that forced African Americans to rely heavily on whites. Also, they were experienced racism in the eyes of the law and experienced indentured servitude, like slavery, for misdemeanor crimes.
The severity of the situation synergized with Confederate hate established the grounds in which the efforts of Reconstruction ultimately failed. After the American Civil War in an attempt to readmit Confederate States to the Union, Congress allowed the states to rejoin under the nonnegotiable term that each state must ratify the Fourteenth Amendment which "forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”" (OI) In addition to this, southern Democrats "gained strength when Congress finally removed the political disabilities from most of the prewar leadership" (Doc 3) combined with the passing of the Amnesty act restored democratic power in government and began the resuppression of African American rights. (Doc 3.... ... middle of paper ... ... of Union soldiers from former Confederate States. (Doc 8) This would be known as the Compromise of 1877. (OI) This historic event concluded the government's efforts for reconstruction in the south which as a whole had ultimately failed.
The free-states and Republicans would soon gain enough power to abolish slavery in the South. The slave states would no longer have power anymore. I... ... middle of paper ... ... for the prohibition of denying suffrage to any citizen just because of their “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The Congress used its power to override President Johnson’s vetoes and thwart some of his attempts to interfere with blacks’ rights. When the Congress passed an act to extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau and gave it powers to nullify work agreements forced on the freedmen under the Black Codes, Johnson vetoed the bill. When the Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which granted citizenship to the blacks of the United States and gave the federal government power to protect citizens’ rights by interfering in state affairs, Johnson vetoed it as well.
Andrew Johnson, who became President of the U.S. in 1865, had his own Reconstruction plan, but it turned out to be unsuccessful largely because of the unfair ways in which blacks were treated. According to his plan, pardons would be offered to all southern whites except wealthy Confederate supporters and the main Confederate leaders. Conventions were to be held by the defeated southern states and new state governments were to be formed. These new governments had to make a vow of loyalty to the nation and abolish slavery in order to rejoin the Union. However, this plan did not offer the blacks a role in this process; he left the responsibility of determining the black people’s roles to the southern states.
The original Constitution prohibited slavery but slave states practiced their right to declare laws "Null and Void". States had the power to decide which laws they followed, without this rule and State power over Federal the slave states would be forced to follow and release their slaves. Even the Founding Fathers did not follow the no slave law in Constitution.Washington was the only Founding Father to free his slaves on his death bed. When the North leaning toward the abolishment slavery, the South became nervous. The Southerns were worried about their everyday lives being altered by the abolishing of slavery.