The Genetic Model will access the gene mutations that affect the individuals. Gene mutations such as, the altering of proteins which in return changes the functions of the brain (McNeece & DiNitto, 2012). Likewise, the individual may be more prone to develop a addiction due to this mutation. Also, genetics can affect the behaviors of an individual participating in the use of drugs. Once a parent participates in drugs and their desires it reflects onto the child’s behaviors and their desire with the use of drugs.
The genes that affect the brain structure are; MAOA, 5HTT, BDNF, NOTCH4, NCAM, tlx, and Pet-1-ETS. When these genes are affected, so is the brain structure which contributes the qualities of anti-socialism. That is, these gene deformities cause harm to the brain, and have the consequences of brain abnormali... ... middle of paper ... ...rofessional psychological help from a psychiatrist. The only way for them to improve themselves lawfully is to seek help, not to be imprisoned or fined for incidents they do not understand. We have to understand here, my client did not commit a felony, only a few misdemeanors, which he can understand on why they were wrong by seeking help.
The opium receptors are proteins, which are located on the face of neurons along the nervous system (2). Researchers found through experiments with radioactive naloxone that the heroin binds to these receptors and in turn inactivates them. Heroin does this by mimicking natural molecules in the brain, such as endorphin and enkephalin, which also inhibit the receptors (2). Therefore the body grows accustomed to not ... ... middle of paper ... ...robably influenced by a balance of genetic predisposal as well and environmental persuasion. While it may be possible for anyone to become dependent on alcohol or heroin, some people are more likely to develop an addiction than others.
These systems have a variety of functions including motor control, learning, memory, hormone secretion and retinal function. Cocaine inhibits dopamine reuptake increasing the lifespan and abundance of dopamine near the receptors. The three types of animal models are predictive, isomorphic and homologous. The numerous advantages to animal models include compliance and a lack of confounding variables. In human drug abusers, the duration of use is often unknown, other drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes may influence results, self-reports may not be accurate and the placebo effect may cause bias.
A gene, called neurofibromatosis type 1, controls this specific pathway. Furthermore, neurofibromatosis controls gamma-amino butyric acid, a chemical in the brain that heightens feelings of relaxation and lowers anxiety. Scientists have found that this gene is associated with excessive drinking in mice. The central amygdala is significant in the decision making process, and also with addiction-related processes. This is where gamma-amino butyric is released in the central nervous system and has shown a significant change from recreational drinking to alcohol dependence.
There is a lot of evidence that suggests that addiction is a disease, and should be treated rather than punished. Drug addiction is a disease because: some people are more likely to suffer from addiction due to their genes, drug abuse brought on by addictive behavior changes the brain and worsens the addiction, and the environment a person lives in can cause the person to relapse because addiction can so strongly affect a person. It is important to consider how addiction to drugs begins. “Genetics accounts for approximately half of an individual’s vulnerability to addiction, including effects of the environment on gene function and expression” (Volkow). This basically means that once a person is exposed to drugs, they are more likely to become addicted to drugs after that exposure if their genes make them more vulnerable to addiction.
But what about those addictions that have long-term effects? Like drinking and smoking, the effects from that are life taking. Some people become addicted in the easiest ways. But is it easy enough to stop? Tobacco is the second leading addiction in America with about 70.9 million people smoking.
Addiction, like other diseases, has the tendency to be genetic. “Addictive drugs induce adaptive changes in gene expression in the brain’s reward regions” (Bevilacqua and Goldman 359–361). The disease is also influenced by environmental conditions and behavior. Addiction genes can be passed down through family members of many generations. If one has addiction in their genes tries a drug and someone who does not have addiction in their genes and tries the same drug, it is more likely that the person with the gene will become addicted over the one without.
It’s not hard to believe that marijuana is the 3rd most popular recreational drug in America and Government polls say some 25 million Americans have smoked the plant in the past year. The purpose of this speech is not to persuade you to do something you have no interest in, but to instead inform you on the discrepancies within our government pertaining to marijuana. The benefits for legalizing the plant outweigh the benefits of keeling it illegal. Marijuana prohibition applies to everyone, including the sick and dying. Of all the negative consequences of prohibition, none is as tragic as the denial of medicinal cannabis to the tens of thousands of patients who could benefit from its therapeutic use.
Over the past several years, one of the most heated social debates has been over the legalization of marijuana. According to the Drug Policy Alliance, “Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the U.S. and the world, and was a well-established medicine until it was federally criminalized in 1937”(10 Facts…). If this statement is true, then why is recreational use of marijuana illegal? The outcome of legalization could easily change everyday life for many Americans. Our nation is currently divided on the idea of legalizing marijuana; both sides have very respectable reasons for believing and supporting their thought on the matter.