Malaysian consumed an average of 226 liters of water per person per day. Furthermore, Malaysian’s water consumption per capita per day is alarmingly high and increasingly about 7.6 liters per year (Christopher, 2011). Water is a major natural resource needed by humans for both drinking and irrigation purposed. The increases of population as well as the increase in economic and industrial activities have lead to high demand for water. In order to produce a potable water, water treatment process must be conducted.
Ozone oxidation of antidepressants in wastewater – Treatment evaluation and characterization of new by-product by LC-QToFMS. Chemistry Central Journal, 7(15). Retrieved from http://journal.chemistrycentral.com/content/7/1/15 5. Geldreich, E. E. & LeChevallier, M. (1999). Water quality and treatment: A handbook of community water supplies (5th ed.).
Water is a finite resource that plays an important role in all aspects of human life. However the demands of water supply are increasing due to population increase, economic activity, and the impacts of climate change . It is estimated that about 1.2 billion people in the global population live in areas where water is scarce . Approximately 7130 km3 of water is evapotranspirated by crops per year worldwide, biofuel crops account for an additional 100 km3 of water that is evapotranspirat... ... middle of paper ... ...ective, environmentally friendly, and can even help remediate contaminated water resources. Bibliography 1 Fraiture, C et al (2007) Biofuels and implications for agricultural water use.
(2005). Swimming upstream: Collaborative approaches to watershed management. Washington, DC: MIT Press. Zalewski, M. (2000). Ecohydrology—the scientific background to use ecosystem properties as management tools toward sustainability of water resources.
From all of the parameters that were examined, turbidity is a characteristic related to the concentration of suspended solid particles in water and has been adopted as an easy and reasonably accurate measure of overall water quality. Turbidity can be used to measure the performance of individual treatment processes as well as the performance of an overall water treatment system. 2.2 Conventional Method In this study, the conventional method of water treatment plant was focused. The treatment processes of raw water before it can be used for public consumption must be based on removal level of impurities to comply with various guidelines. The extent of treatment depends upon the quality of the raw water and the desired quality of treated water (Hong, 2006).
Water Quality and Health Council - Wastewater - Wastewater Chlorination: An Enduring Public Health Practice. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.waterandhealth.org/wastewater/chlorination.php3 3-T Engineering (2003). Wastewater Treatment. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.calvin.edu/academic/engineering/senior-design/SeniorDesign03-04/Team17/wwt.html
A Model-Based Methodology for Spray-Drying Process Development. Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, 4(3), 133-142. Friesen, D. T., Shanker, R., Crew, M., Smithey, D. T., Curatolo, W. J., & Nightingale, J. A. (2008).
Therefore, in order to prevent the pollution problems in receiving waters, the treatment of water is proposed. As mentioned by Omran (2011), there are six steps in water treatment process includes preliminary treatment, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and addition of chemicals to clear water tank (exemplified in Figure 1). Before undergoing the process of water treatment, the raw water is allowed to flow in preliminary treatment which begins with firstly, screening process. In this process, large floating materials like leaves, sticks and fish is removed to avoid the damage of plant equipment (Omran, 2011). Secondly, the water passes through the process of aeration where the process of bringing water and air into close contact by introducing bubbles of air and letting them rise through the water (Omran, 2011).
Basic Information about Fluoride in Drinking Water Review of Fluoride Drinking Water Standard. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2013. "Water Fluoridation Crucial For Community Health."
This result in uneven distribution of electrons throughout the molecule, causing polarity within the molecule as the area around the hydrogen is slightly positive and the area around the oxygen is slightly negative. However, these charges are equal, so water molecule has no overall charge (Brooker et al., 2007). As water is a polar molecule, it is an excellent transport medium, since it can dissolve and interact with a wide range of “polar and charged molecules” (Gerstein & Levitt, 1998), such as, water in the interstitial fluid, dissolves oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood, to be transported around th... ... middle of paper ... ...in organic media. Glasgow: Springer. Nelson, D.L., Cox, M.M.