The Problem of Antibiotic Resistance

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ANTIBIOTIC
Antibiotics are a term refers to substances produced by microorganisms that can harm and inhibit or destroy other microorganisms, specifically bacteria (15). Antibiotics can be produced naturally or unnaturally via pharmaceutical industries using large-scale processes of fermentation. The antibiotics discovery has been of great significance due to in many clinical settings the antibiotics generally are the best way to destroy bacteria which cause infections in humans and animals. In 1910, The Salvarsan use in the treatment of syphilis was the first application of antibiotics (15). In 1930, the antibiotics application was continued with sulphonamides. In addition, the first use of penicillin was in 1941 in the bacterial infection treatment المرحع 5. In 1950-1960, many antibiotics classes were discovered as well as many improvements were added to these classes during 1980 and 1990 by specialist scientists. The main antibiotics classes are cephalosporines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, tetracyclines and aminoglycoside which can be categorized based on the microbial origin and chemical structure. Usually, antibiotics have two names, the generic name, indicating the chemical structure and the trade name to point to the manufacturers.المرحع 5. At the beginning of 1950, the problem of antibiotic resistance was viewed in the agriculture and medical field (15)

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENT
In recent decades, the antibiotics resistance have increasing importance concerning its influence both public and environmental health (1) because great numbers of antibiotic resistant bacteria are isolated from the environment. Generally, antimicrobial resistance takes place when the microorganisms are capable of r...

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... carried out in some European regions in the year 1999 and 2000, samples collected from the environment, animal feces and animal meat. In these regions, avoparcin, had been used in livestock husbandry farms, which is chemically similar to Vancomycin. Study results showed that the vancomycin resistance was attributed to the avoparcin use in livestock farms. In one of the studied regions, avoparcin had been banned in 1986, therefore, vancomycin resistant Enterococci in this region was largely decreased compared to other regions where the avoparcin had been banned in 1997. This correlation with the prohibition of avoparcin and lower resistant of Vancomycin by Enterococci demonstrates that if protective steps are taken there can be a reversal of the resistance distribution if there are regulations on the inputs sources of antibiotic resistance into the environment(21).

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