The Police Systems Of Japan

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A review of the police systems of Japan reveals the evolution of a police system which has undergone five distinctive phases culminating with the current centralized national police service. History implies that the evolution of the Japanese Police forces mirrors the events occurring in Europe and as such can be identified by specific periods. The first period, which is identified from 700 to 1603, is marked by the implementation of a dual police system consisting of both public and private police forces. As the police and judicial responsibilities were retained by the ministers of War, Justice, and Popular Affairs while the army served as the professional police force. Terrill states the advent of feudalism decentralized the order of enforcement as the “shogunate increasingly turned to the samurai to provide law enforcement” (2013). The second phase occurring between 1603 and 1868 is identified as the Tokugawa period and illustrates the efforts to centralize governmental authority and political stability. Here, the development of a centralized law enforcement system is reflective of that of the 1800th century France, as a secret police force is established and tasked with the identification of corruption within the government and maintaining a watchful eye on those who opposed the Tokugawa rule (Terrill,2013). During this time, the establishment of magistrates was established and given tripartite authority to serve as chief of police, prosecutor, and judge in criminal cases. The third phase identified between 1868 and 1945 highlights the development of law enforcement techniques. With the removal of self-imposed barriers, Japan borrowed organizational and administrative techniques from the west coinciding with that of Europe. ... ... middle of paper ... for passbook violations, abuse, and torture which was predominately directed to black South Africans (Terrill, 2013). The homeland police departments which operated under the Minister of Law and Order which were inadequately funded and the subject of criticism merged with the old national South African Police Organizations resulting in the South African Police Service which is housed in the Department of Safety and Security. Here in the New South Africa, the police are controlled by the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the South African Police Service Act of 1995. With changes being implemented, to a new democratic government, many of the former participants of the old party remained asserting that experienced officers would be needed in controlling any civil unrest or dealing with the rising crime during the country’s transition (Terrill, 2013).
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