Abstract— this paper presents the theory of cruise control system in an autonomous car. Cruise control system helps car to control its velocity. Wheel speed sensors are used to get the current velocity of the car. Velocity data is used by proportional integration derivative (PID) control mechanism to calculate the required throttle position for the car. Adaptive cruise control mechanism adapts the velocity of the car according to vehicles in front.
The weight on any corner of the vehicle affects the weight of the other three corners in direct proportion. The wedge determines how the car handles by either stiffening the wedge or loosening it up. Aerodynamic drag is another math related racing factor. A number that is a coefficient of several factors indicates how well a car will travel through the air is the aerodynamic drag. Teams use specific tests to determine how to achieve the least amount of drag on the car in order to obtain the fastest speed possible.
So how do Newton’s laws refer to car safety? Crumple zones- are a structural feature used in automobiles. They help by absorbing the impact; this is by spreading the impact through parts of the car instead of in the one spot. This reflects back onto law number one, two and three. This is shown when the car hits the object it causes the car to slow down or completely stop (1).
In order to gain a complete understanding of the physics that affect a car, it is necessary to conduct a study that examines all the aspects of physics in regard to acceleration, stopping, aerodynamics, speed, velocity and the list goes on. This paper has addressed the physics of what makes a car move and some of the forces that exist when a car is moving. Kinetic energy and friction play an important role in the movement of a vehicle. Similarly, drag will affect the movement of a vehicle through the surrounding air and is measured as the coefficient of drag. Lastly, the mass of an object times the velocity of the object will equal the momentum of the object.
The design of ideal road bumps would make drivers hold their speed below 25 km/h at least when crossing a road bumps. Figure 1.1 describe roughly how road bumps influence crossing speed. The designs of road bumps influences experienced driving comfort and through that drivers speed. If a road bump is designed in a way so that the driving discomfort does not increase very much as the speed increases, driver see no reason to slow down before crossing a road bump. In many cases, drivers estimate the discomfort of crossing against decrease travel time.
When the resistance related to the tires on the car against the road, it is called traction. The traction points on your car are where the rubber on your tire touches the road’s surface. There are three main traction purposes: putting your vehicle in motion, stopping your vehicle, and changing the direction of your vehicle. The amount of friction that is made is limited even when all the important factors are good. When you are driving, you should avoid decreasing the available traction.
Motorists depend on traffic control to avoid collisions and travel safely to their destination. Our neighborhoods need control of speed, too. Accidents not only happen on the highway, but also on residential streets, with the speed limits being 25 mph. Motorists are exceeding these limits as I speak. They would be unable to stop quickly enough for pedestrians, possibly swerving out of control and hitting a house or another car.
Every object in the car has speed, mass and direction. Therefore, if a person sitting in the car is not secured, they will continue moving in the same direction and also with the same speed the car was going when the car suddenly stops until a force acts on them. Objects also has momentum, the product of a passenger’s mass and velocity. To stop the passenger’s momentum, a force has to act on them. The airbag supplies a force over time or impulse.
Then, the springs would want to expand and compress over and over until the energy is gotten rid of, but that would make the car bounce uncontrollably. The shock absorbers absorb the energy of the vertically accelerated wheel, allowing the frame and body to ride undisturbed while the wheels follow bumps in the road. Since bumps on the road cause a vertical acceleration, there is energy that can be used and be converted into electricity or... ... middle of paper ... ... for the work: Change in work W= 1.394982 N* 2.089m - 1.372419 N * 2.089m 0.047134107 Joules The total energy needed for the car to pass over the track was 0.047134107 Joules. The total energy that was recovered was 0.0139339205 Joules. They are not equal and the percentage that was recovered was only a fraction of the total.
Implement the driver violation point system This system is designed to identify and take action against high risk drivers. Certain points are given to various traffic violations such as reckless driving, speeding, use of cell phones while driving, inadequate brakes, not using seat belts etc and is recorded in the driving record in times of violation. Based on these records, you can suspend or revoke licenses of drivers who violate traffic regulations. 6. Awareness through hoardings You can make use of hoardings to display traffic rules as it easily grabs attention of people.