“How all occasions do inform against me” is a line from act IIII, scene IIII of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. This line, spoken by Hamlet, expresses his emotional state as he is currently overwhelmed by the death of his father, the king of Denmark, and the situation surrounding it. After Hamlet learns of his father’s death he finds out that his mother has married Claudius, Hamlet’s uncle. On top of all of that, Hamlet soon after discovers that Claudius murdered his father in order to become king, and he takes it upon himself to avenge his father’s death. Throughout the play, the severe stress of the situation seems to take its toll on Hamlet putting him in a depressed state, and eventually over time he grows ‘mad’. To put in psychological terms, he developed psychosis. The question that this paper will address is how an individual develops psychosis? There is a wide range of theories, all with reasonable evidence. It These different theories seem to indicate that psychosis is the result of a recipe of different environmental, biological, and neural structural factors. An environmental factor that appears to play a part in the development of psychosis is stress. A study published in the European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience journal entitled Reappraisal of the interplay between psychosis and depression symptoms in the pathogenesis of psychotic syndromes: results from a twenty-year prospective community study examines the relationship between psychosis and depression symptoms in the onset of psychosis, using evidence from the Zurich study (Rossler, et al., 2011, pp. 11-13). The 20 yearlong study, which was conducted in Switzerland, involved... ... middle of paper ... ...n Os , J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Childhood trauma and increased stress. ACTA PSYCHIATRICA, 28–35. Qoldman, M. B., & Mitchell, C. P. (2004). What Is the Functional Significance of Hippocampal Pathology in Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin , 367-392. Rossler, W., Angst, J., Gamma, A., Haker, H., Stulz, N., Merikangas, K. R., & Ajdacic-Gross, V. (2011). Reappraisal of the interplay between psychosis and depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci , 11-19. Stefanis, N. C., Henquet, C., Avramopoulos, D., Smyrnis, N., Evdokimidis, I., Germeys, I. M., . . . Os, J. V. (2007). COMT Val158Met moderation of stress-induced psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 1651–1656. Thompson, J. L., Pogue-Geile, M. F., & Grace , A. A. (2004). Developmental Pathology, Dopamine, and Stress: A Model for the Age of Onset of Schizophrenia Symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 875-900.
It is hard to comprehend how and why people lose their sanity and become mad. I will address how the mind’s struggles caused by individual genes, stress and social-cultural influence affect the lives of Naomi, a 24-year-old college student with schizophrenia and Eric, a 27-year-old classical musician with severe depression. Their thoughts and behavior surprised me as this is my first time exposed to what these mental illnesses are. The relation between the mind and the body and the fact that the emotions affect the functioning of the body and vice versa explains the how and why a person become insane.
Two main theorists came up with the condition we now know as schizophrenia; Emil Kreaplien and Eugen Bleuler. Kreaplien initially described ‘dementia praecox’, something we now understand to be schizophrenia. Kreaplien differentiated between two disorders, manic depressive illness and dementia praecox and believed that although these disorders were ‘systematically diverse that held a common core.’ Kreaplien believed that the original majo...
After researching schizophrenia, it is apparent that there is no clear answer to the question of what causes the psychiatric disorder. Rather, there is much debate about the four hypotheses that seem to dominate the scientific community as of late. Many researchers believe that schizophrenia may be a combination of all or some of the hypotheses. Whether these hypotheses are true or not, it is important that more research be done to become less wrong in the understanding of schizophrenia.
Hamlet, a young prince preparing to become King of Denmark, cannot understand or cope with the catastrophes in his life. After his father dies, Hamlet is filled with confusion. However, when his father's ghost appears, the ghost explains that his brother, Hamlet's Uncle Claudius, murdered him. In awe of the supposed truth, Hamlet decides he must seek revenge and kill his uncle. This becomes his goal and sole purpose in life. However, it is more awkward for Hamlet because his uncle has now become his stepfather. He is in shock by his mother's hurried remarriage and is very confused and hurt by these circumstances. Along with these familial dysfunctions, Hamlet's love life is diminishing. It is an "emotional overload" for Hamlet (Fallon 40). The encounter with the ghost also understandably causes Hamlet great distress. From then on, his behavior is extremely out of context (Fallon 39). In Hamlet's first scene of the play, he does not like his mother's remarriage and even mentions his loss of interest in l...
History shows that signs of mental illness and abnormal behavior have been documented as far back as the early Greeks however, it was not viewed the same as it is today. The mentally ill were previously referred to as mad, insane, lunatics, or maniacs. W.B. Maher and B.A. Maher (1985) note how many of the terms use had roots in old English words that meant emotionally deranged, hurt, unhealthy, or diseased. Although early explanations were not accurate, the characteristics of the mentally ill have remained the same and these characteristics are used to diagnose disorders to date. Cultural norms have always been used to assess and define abnormal behavior. Currently, we have a decent understanding of the correlates and influences of mental illness. Although we do not have complete knowledge, psychopathologists have better resources, technology, and overall research skills than those in ancient times.
Mental illness, today we are surround by a broad array of types of mental illnesses and new discoveries in this field every day. Up till the mid 1800’s there was no speak of personality disorder, in fact there was only two type of mental illness recognized. Those two illnesses as defined by Dr. Sam Vaknin (2010), “”delirium” or “manial”- were depression (melancholy), psychoses, and delusions.” It was later in 1835 when J. C. Pritchard the British Physician working at Bristol Infirmary Hospital published his work titled “Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorder of the Mind” this opened the door to the world of personality disorder. There were many story and changes to his theories and mental illness and it was then when Henry Maudsley in 1885 put theses theories to work and applied to a patient. This form of mental illness has since grown into the many different types of personality disorder that we know today. Like the evolution of the illness itself there has been a significant change in the way this illness is diagnosed and treated.
The origin of Schizophrenia is not completely known. Though, it shows that Schizophrenia could be caused by the contact involving genetic and environmental factors. Biological interpretations have controlled in past studies. But now twin and adoption studies propose that environmental factors assist in sparking Schizophrenia. However, neither the biological nor the environmental categories is known to be the source, also there is no guarantee that one will make certain if he will or will not develop Schizophrenia.