Discuss, compare and contrast the 3 stages. To have a better understanding of your patients particular case with acute kidney failure you would want to gather a patient history to see if they have used any nephrotoxic medications or have had systemic illnesses in the past that may have been related to poor perfusion in their body. The laboratory tests you would want to pay attention to would be a complete blood count, urinalysis, ultrasound, glomerular filtration rate and a measurement of serum creatinine and potassium level (Rahman, Shad, Smith 2012).
Physically the patient’s body will show swelling caused by fluid retention and murmur in the heart, crackles in the lungs or any abnormal sounds in the heart or lungs can be found. These tests include BUN (normal range 6-20 mg/dl), creatinine clearance (compares the levels of creatinine in urine and blood), serum creatinine, serum potassium and urinalysis. The preferred test for diagnosing a blockage in the urinary tract would be an ultrasound. X-ray or MRI can also tell if there is a blockage, and the blood test will help reveal the underlying cause of kidney failure. Insufficient filtering of the blood by the kidney causing high levels of compounds containing nitrogen and other waste products is called azotemia.
Acute Renal Failure is when the kidneys abruptly stop functioning by excreting wastes of the body. Abnormal functions that can cause acute renal failure are that the body cannot regulate acid-base balance of bodily fluids, regulation of one’s blood pressure which affects waste products not being filtered from the body, and irregularities of red blood cell production. There are many factors that can cause a person’s kidneys to stop working properly. A prerenal cause is something that occurs in the bloody supply to the kidneys, such as inadequate blood profusion to the kidneys. Having inadequate blood profusion prevents the kidneys from cleansing the blood in the body.
(Mayo Clinic , 2012). The amount of urine excreted in a day can help your doctor find the cause of kidney failure. Diagnosis testing for prerenal and intrarenal failure would be Urinalysis and various blood tests, which reveal abnormalities such as BUN, serum electrolyte, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus and albumin levels. ( Mayo clinic, 2012). CT scan and/or an ultra sound can be used to view the kidneys and a biopsy is a definitive way to determine if the patient has postrenal failure.
However, in some cases an individual may develop acute renal failure. Its rapid development impairs the kidneys unless the underlying cause of the problem is found immediately and treated properly. When the cardiovascular system fails to perfuse the kidneys adequately with blood, the result is acute renal failure. In acute renal failure (ARF) the kidneys suddenly loses its ability to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance (Schrier, Wang, Poole & Mitra, 2004). The glomerulus, or the capillary network inside the Bowman’s capsule, is responsible for the entire filtrating system of our kidneys.
At that time the kidney will be able to sustain hemostasis and regulate blood pressure. We will gradually reintroduce a normal diet and continue monitoring kidney function. For long term goals we will find the cause of the kidney failure and educate the patient in how to prevent or work with their kidney function. Cause chronic renal failure can cause acute renal failure. Long term goals is diet and fluid intake.
Acute Renal Failure Acute renal failure is the inability of your kidneys to function properly. When acute renal failure occurs the kidneys lose the ability to remove waste and the ability to balance fluids and electrolytes. The functional and structural changes, otherwise known as the pathophysiologic changes, associated with acute renal failure (ARF) involve changes in renal hemodynamics, nephron function and cell metabolism. ARF can lead to symptoms such as the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance. Interactions of tubular and vascular events result in ARF and the leading cause of ARF is ischemia, which is the restricted supply of blood to tissues.
Acute kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filture waste products from your blood. Unfortunatley this leads to unbalanced levels of waste accumilated in the blood making this a very serious problem. This condition can be fatal and requires intensive treatment. Fortunately, however this may be reversible. Prerenal kidney failure occurs suddently when a reduction in blood flow to the kidneys causes loss of kidney function.
The first test will be a UA to see how much urine you are producing and to check for any obstruction. It will require a dip stick to determine any protein, blood and sugar. To get a better understanding of acute renal failure a blood test will be drawn to determine BUN and Creatinine levels this test determines how the kidneys are functioning. When the levels are high it means there is renal failure. The doctor may order a renal ultra sound, KUB or CT scan as well to check for kidney function.
When a client arrives in the emergency room with complaints of asthenia, malaise, headache, weight gain, and decrease in urination, the key factor is urine retention. That clue alone may lead to a diagnosis of acute renal failure. Acute renal failure is the loss of the ability to filter, remove, and balance fluid and electrolytes in your body. There are three types of causes, all of which have a necessary plan for treatment. Prerenal Prerenal is the disruption that occurs before reaching the kidneys, and are usually caused by inadequate blood circulation.