The Parenting Theory Of Attachment

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Attachment is an emotional bond between infant and caregiver. Infant will feel pleasure or comfort to interact with caregiver and seek for proximity in stressful situations. Attachment usually developed between 6 months to age of 2. According to John Bowlby (1969), attachment was an all or nothing process. He believed that attachment behaviors are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity and fear. According to Yip (2016), secure attachment is consistent, stable, intimate and nurturing. Both infant and caregiver have mutual benefit and it allows autonomy. For insecure attachment, it is inconsistent, unstable, disengaged and manipulating. It also creates dependency.

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Moreover, the infant’s behavior is more complicated than is often stated in the theory. There are several varieties and levels of proximity which promote behavior. Furthermore, attachment theory inclined to ignore the behavior of infant with caregiver after proximity is obtained, and how the nature of attachments and working models be modified due to the changes in the caregiving environment. It only based on behaviors that occur during a short period of separations between infant and caregiver which infant is in stressful situations rather than during non-stressful situations. Attachment behaviors only focus to that occur with the primary attachment figure, usually the mother. However, other attachments are not necessarily characterized by those same behaviors. Infants may have attachments to other people than their mothers, but they do not show this attachment in the same way. In attachment theory, mother usually regarded as the primary attachment figure, but in fact, other attached figure like father or sibling might have the same type of attachment with the infant at the same
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