In conclusion, attachment in infants is concerned with how the infant’s closets relationship with its parents and caretakers develop. Although early processes are important, emotion goes on developing throughout the life-span. Infants who do not have any sort of attachment or close relationship with an adult do feel deprived however, research implies that it is possible to recover from the worst severed deprived childhoods, as far as they can experience help and warm relationships.
According to John Bowlby’s Attachment Theory (cited in Kirkpatrick & Shaver, 1990), an infant is programmed to form attachment with their primary caregiver (Ainsworth, 1979) in order to strengthen their chances of survival. This form of attachment is forged when caregivers provide infants with a source of comfort and a sense of security. Attachment is also strongly interlinked with exploration systems. Bowlby and Ainsworth (cited in Rothbaum, Weiz, Pott, Miyake & Morelli, 2002) also state that infants are more inclined to examine their environment when they receive sufficient comfort and protection provided by their caregivers. Thus, when faced with
Behavioural control involves setting reasonable rules and reasoning, and monitoring children’s activities. Moderate level of control would lead to the child being more likely to accept and internalise parents’ standards than when parent overly controlling or permissive (Holden & Hawk, 2003). Too much control and demandingness may limit children’s opportunities to make decisions for themselves or to make their needs known to their parents. Psychological control involves the use of emotion-directed tactics such as guilt or shame induction, withdrawal of love or affection, or ignoring or discounting a child’s feelings. Use of this type of control often leads to lower self-esteem, higher anxiety and, possibly, depression (Barber & Harmon, 2002).
Marriage is not all about love, it requires other materials to cooperate and understand each other. One of the fundamental materials is having someone that has same or similar personality. If a married couple have different attachment styles then they are more likely to end up having dissatisfying and unhappy marriage which may leads to divorce. Background: The theory of attachment was developed by John Browbly, a British psychologist who demonstrated that infants are born with preprogrammed to bond with their significant person, a primary caregiver. Once the infant develops the emotional attachment with caregiver, infant will consider them as the secure base where they feel protected and se... ... middle of paper ... ...n interacting with others and forming healthy relationships.
But what really interested Bowlby was the significance between early childhood separations from the mother, and how these separations would further manifest as maladjustments in the child 's life. Interestingly, Bowlby noted [that] children who were exposed to prolonged periods of deprivation, were essentially “affectionless” ( 3 ). This affectionless state of mind is critical for us to understand when we take into account the probable causes of children growing up into societal
Infants may experience less disruption, because their cognitive skills are limited and formation of attachment bond is incomplete. Parent- child attachment relationships are less likely to be disrupted when parents remain accessible and responsive to their children needs for comfort and reassurance throughout the separation process. Parents can facilitate resiliency in their offspring by open, available and comforting. Parental divorce can be highly stressful for adolescents. Adolescence is a transitional time for attachment relationships.
This system is how the child responds to situations when their secure base is around. Lastly, is the internal working model, which is how the child views the world in addition to their relationships (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). Carol Stalker and Rosemary Hazelton (2008) believed that attachment theory is appropriate for all clients especially those who experience maltreatment. Attachment theory supports the idea that psychological problems or disruptions are in congruence with early caregiving relationships; and based on the primary caregivers’ rapport with the child; he or she will develop a positive or negative pattern of attachment that will be present through adulthood if not rehabilitated (Stalker & Hazelton, 2008). Therefore, the primary goal of the attachment theory is to provide the child with a secure base to appropriately attain a sense of security to pattern proper social and emotional interpersonal relationships into adulthood (Stalker & Hazelton,
This can hinder the child's development and they will not grow and have skills to deal with future problems. Intervention Children who experience behavior problems is typically because they lack the emotional development in their environment and system's around them. An approach to improvement is observed to be positive parenting correlated with improvement in observed child negative behavior (Burton, Gardner, & Klimes, 2006). As a future social worker, when addressed with these problems, it is crucial to tackle them early to prevent future diagnosis. Social workers can provide resources and services to children who are experiencing behavior problems.
Moreover, there is the ambivalent attachment style where infants who exhibit this style display immediate distress and anxiety when separation from their mother occurs. However, they show ambivalent behaviour, meaning both contact-resisting and contact-seeking behaviour towards their mother when she returns (ibid.). For example, they might combine kicking and hitting while clinging on to her. Then, there is the disorganized attachment style. According to D. Shemmings and Y. Shemmings (2011), infants who acted strangely and oddly during strange situation experiments were categorized under this attachment style.
A theory that can relate to today’s society and the way people behave is the attachment theory. It refers to the strong emotional and physical bond between an infant and a caregiver which is essential to personal development. As part of the attachment theory there are three attachment styles. First is secure which refers to the infant having a strong relationship with its caregiver, almost as if they seem to be clingy. Second is avoidant in where the child is negligent as the child has learned to be self sufficient.