16 Apr. 2014. Boesch-Achermann, Hedwige, and Christophe Boesch. "Tool Use In Wild Chimpanzees: New Light From Dark Forests." Current Directions In Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell) 2.1 (1993): 18-21.
The intelligence of gorillas has been overlooked for many decades, and is still overlooked today. Gorillas and other apes are close cousins to humans, and until recently, have been believed to only be able to achieve a level of intelligence that humans possess (Patterson). It is clear these assumptions are wrong, and gorillas do have the potential to have the same level of intelligence as humans. Even simple memory tests suggest gorilla’s intelligence is comparable to humans. “That challenges the belief of many people, including a number of scientists, that "humans are superior to chimpanzees in all cognitive functions," researcher Tetsuro Matsuzawa of Kyoto University told the Associated Press in 2007 on the subject ("How Smart Are Planet
Darwin would say that we are fundamentally different from other animals. One assumption was that man was unique from other animals because of the use of tools. However, as noted by Gallup (1979) Jane Goodall discovered that chimpanzees used twigs as tools for reaching food that they could otherwise get to. Chance (2003) states "reinforcement is the procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increases or maintain the strength of that behavior" (p.141). The chimpanzees had the novel thought of using a twig to reach ants that were inside a tree trunk.
National Geographic - Spider Monkey Ateles http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/spider-monkey/ 7. Rowe, N. (1996) The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press, Rhode Island. 8. THE BROWN SPIDER MONKEY (ATELESHYBRIDUS) CONSERVATION PROGRAM 2006-2010 A. Morales Jimenez'" and A.
NON HUMAN PRIMATES Non human primates’ social organization can provide useful information how human social evolution occurs. We will go over main points of how similar and different non human primates such as chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas’ society are compared to ours, humans. Chimpanzee Social Organization and Communication Chimpanzees (Figure 1) are the closest living relatives to us, and they share 99 percent of our DNA (1). Chimpanzees have distinct group territoriality. Male chimpanzees “patrol” near the boundary between the two ranges, at that time they move very carefully and quietly, and they can cease to listen and observe the range of their neighbors.
(Zuckerman, 1932:171) This paper has revealed that chimpanzees are creatures of great extremes: aggressive one moment, peaceful the next. This gruesome violent behavior can actually be linked to a similarity with human beings. It is widely accepted in the scientific community that chimpanzees are the closest human relatives we have. If we are indeed superior to these primates, does it not stand to reason that humans should be able to learn from this violence and avoid it? Jane Goodall, in her article labeled, "Life and Death at Gombe" draws a similar conclusion: It is sobering that our new awareness of chimpanzee violence compels us to acknowledge that these ape cousins of ours are even more similar to humans than we thought before.
The evolution of modern giraffes began about 1 million years ago from a similar species known as Giraffa jumae. Those species were known for their massive skeletons and antler-like structures, not found on giraffes of today (Simmons 772). Today, there are nine widely excepted subspecies of the giraffes which are differentiated by the spots on the trunks and their geographic region. In the article, "Winning By a Neck: Sexual Selection in the Evolution of Giraffes," Simmons and Scheepers state their purpose as to evaluate the theory proposed by Darwin as well as present their own. The theory by Darwin known as the Interspecific Feeding Competition has many assumptions that must hold up for it to be true.
Molecular anthropologist Jonathan Marks voice was one of these. In an excerpt from his literary work What It Means to be 98% Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes, Marks undermines the importance of the Human Genome Project and our genes, advocating instead a more rational and moderate view of them. By exposing three of the Project s flaws, he hopes to convince... ... middle of paper ... ...ealize that our genes are but one aspect of our history, that there are many other histories that are even more important it is a delusion to think that genomics in isolation will ever tell us what it means to be human (2001, paragraph 11). Indeed, everything is not solely in our genes. Works Cited Beckwith, J.
This was the first time that an animal was discovered manufacturing his or her own tool. (Quammen, 110-112) Development of Tool Use In an article penned by Ann Minard for National Geographic News, she explains the once held theory that chimpanzees in the wild learned tool usage from humans is no longer valid. It was once thought modern chimpanzees developed tool usage by imitating farmers. New evidence suggests that chimpanzees have been using stones to crack nuts as far back as 4,300 years ago. (Minard, 1) When chimpanzee archeological sites were found in 2007 in West Africa, archeologist Julio Mercader along with primatologist Christophe Boesch observed the rocks used today by the chimpanzees in West Africa, the only chimpanzees to use rocks to open nuts, resemble those found at the prehistoric sites.