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The Once Pristine Idyllic Wetland is Now a Garbage Dump

Satisfactory Essays
Recently, I posted an article titled "February 2, 2014 is World Wetlands Day".

Why am I interested in wetlands? Because I am concerned. My home in Jalladianpet, in the suburbs of Chennai is just 2.5 miles (4 km) from the Pallikaranai wetland in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

A wetland is technically defined as:

"An ecosystem that arises when inundation by water produces soils dominated by anaerobic processes, which, in turn, forces

the biota, particularly rooted plants, to adapt to flooding."

The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation that adapts to its unique soil conditions. Primarily, wetlands consist of hydric soil, which supports aquatic plants

There are four main kinds of wetlands: marsh, swamp, bog and fen. Sub-types include mangrove, carr, pocosin, and varzea.

Some experts also include wet meadows and aquatic ecosystems as additional wetland types.

The Pallikaranai wetland is a freshwater marshland spanning 31 square miles (80 sq km). It is situated adjacent to the Bay of Bengal, about 12.5 miles (20 km) south of the city centre, bounded by Velachery (north), Kovilambakkam (west), Okkiyam Thuraipakkam (east), and Medavakkam (south). It is the only surviving wetland ecosystem of the city and is among the few and last remaining natural wetlands of South India. It is one of the three in the state of Tamilnadu, the other two being Point Calimere and Kazhuveli.

The Pallikaranai wetland is one of the 94 identified wetlands in India under the National Wetland Conservation and Management Programme (NWCMP) of the Government of India that came into operation in 1985–86.

This wetland is literally a treasury of bio-diversity that is almost four times that of Vedanthangal bird sanctuary in the Kancheepuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, 47 miles (75 km) from Chennai where more than 40,000 birds (including 26 rare species), from various parts of the world visit during the migratory season every year.

The Pallikaranai wetlandcontains several rare and endangered species of plants and animals. It acts as a forage and breeding ground for thousands of migratory birds from various places within and outside the country. Bird watchers opine that the number of bird species sighted in the wetland is definitely more than in the Vedanthangal bird sanctuary.

The heterogeneous ecosystem of the marshland supports about 337 species of floras and faunas:

GROUP NUMBER OF SPECIES
Birds 115
Plants 114
Fishes 46
Reptiles 21
Mammals 10
Amphibians 10
Molluscs 9
Butterflies 7
Crustaceans 5
Total 337

Birds, fishes and reptiles are the most prominent of the faunal groups.

Russel's Viper (Source: umich.edu)

The Pallikaranai wetland is also home to some of the most endangered reptiles such as the Russell's viper, and birds such as the glossy ibis, gray-headed Lapwings and pheasant-tailed Jacana.
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