This can be quite the problem in rural areas where public transport is unreliable at best and can even be non-existent. According to (Jong Gatoona 2010), One reason people avoid public transport is that it wastes valuable time. When it comes to going somewhere, public transit will in most cases take more time to reach the desired destination when compared to driving there. For example, 30-40 minutes of driving will instead take 45-65 minutes when public transit is used. This estimate of course does not factor the time taken waiting for vehicles to arrive i... ... middle of paper ... ...t a viable way.
Actually, sustainable development can partly solve the urbanization problems, for it can reduce the impact of the problems such as traffic jam, housing shortage and severe pollution, but it is difficult to completely solve these problems in a short time. Traffic jam Traffic jam is one of the most serious problems of urbanization, almost all the modern cities are facing different levels of traffic jam problems. In general, people can ease the traffic jam and not compromise the quality of life by a policy of sustainable development in two aspects including formulating a more efficient transport pattern and changing the urban construction. For formulating a more efficient transport pattern, there are some specific strategies. Firstly, government can encourage people to pay more attention to public transit.
The most outstanding urban transportation issues in the United States are: traffic congestion, longer commuting, inadequacy of public transport, green transportation difficulty, and good distribution (Rodrigue). Many of these problems occur because of the United States’ dependency on the automobile. Statistics show that when given the choice, individuals prefer using an automobile due to its convenience, comfort, and speed. Also, it is shown that many households have more than one automobile (U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey). Automobile dependency is caused by underpricing and planning and investment practices by cities (Rodrique).
The development of the United States Highway System has had negative impacts on the urban character of our country’s cities. One of the main catalysts, if not the main catalyst, of urban sprawl has been the development of transportation. It has made it extremely convenient and easy for people to move farther out of the inner city and develop rural America. As a result many prominent cities across our country have felt the effects of sprawl through diminished downtown economies. Highways have also played a key role in the standardization of American urban environments.
We see it especially prevalent during rush hours. You can ignore it, but n... ... middle of paper ... ...r the pollution they are contributing when driving on the roads. Typically, the environmental benefits of road pricing are, more often than not, regarded as a co-benefit to implementing road pricing (Arnold, 2013, p. 18). The bulk of the benefit to introduce road pricing still remains with generating revenue and reducing congestion. Politically implementing road pricing has been a tough battle, but it is actually believed to change people’s habits.
The level of car ownership and usage nowadays is unsustainable leading to polluted and unhealthy cities. Each of the mentioned concerns can be considered important to shift toward a more sustainable urban development. Spatial planning main purpose is to find ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the local, regional and national level. Although major countries, like UK, are directing transport policy initiatives toward usage of sustainable mobility, it is difficult to implement in practice in a society used to travel by car (Hutton, 2013). The existing city form and urban fabric have contributed to increased car usage.
Public transport become one of core topic while contributing a livable society. However, people tend to highly dependent on car, which is not only means of transport but also play an essential role in society such as sense of superiority and power (Steg, 2005). Accessibility tends to become the focus of transport planning (Morris, Dumble & Wigan, 1978). This essay will analysis the problems bought by shortage of public transport occurs in Mernda in terms of low accessible and higher car dependency. Then will point out solution to improve the public transportation to achieve livability by looking at the policy that was implemented in metro and state.
On the other hand, this policy can also change people’s perspective of living and consideration of the environmental problems. Make people more concern about the conservation of the environment, and evoke their conscience to protect the environment. By thus we can reduce the pollution, and make better environment. So changing new cars will also make the city looks flourishing, reduce the exhaust emission, and make people healthier. However, every coin has two sides, the biggest disadvantage of buying new cars is it creates more disposals of the old vehicles, which will become a huge burden of society.
At the same time these are the most interesting from its potential result in congestion reduction, because the “external” carpool feels the responsibility for vehicle provision and driving which is difficult to break when there is less intimacy between people. Some experiences have been conducted to incentive “external” carpooling, mainly in the Washington, D.C. and Europe, but they have been obtaining limited success mainly for schedule differences between participants and because of the difficulty in
Economic implication of congestion Congestion is a condition of traffic delay due to the number of vehicles trying to use the road exceeds the traffic network capacity to handle them. Congestion is a major problem growing in many towns like Windhoek. In general congestion delays travel to reach their destination on time as planned. One can be thinking of implementing congestion charging to reduce to reduce this issue. There are many various economic implications of congestion as follow: Congestion causes loss of productivity Business exists in towns where many people live, for them to sell or buy products and make profits.