The Negative Effect of Golf

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According to sports, golf become more popular in our society, many people are practice it and other play golf as a hobby. This research will be about golf and the negative affect that cause to society in past or even today. Golfing aims a lot of discrimination among women, it provided racism and the cost of this sport creates tension between social classes. In past, golf provided racism and only white people could have access to it. The article, “Race Relations And The Sports Of Golf: The African American Legacy”, by Marvin P. Dawkins demonstrates that Americans exploited and exclude the African American slaves to participate in white-controlled sports. African American formed their own organization in sports like basketball or baseball. The desegregation of race relations in sports starts to increase after World War 2 (Dawkins 327). It was not the case of golf. Firstly, the author examines the development of black golf in America. Golf was the last major sport to remove the black participation at professional levels. The first black professional golfer was John Shippen. He competed in many USGA tournaments. Also, he professional golf association exclude blacks for becoming members in 1916 (Dawkins 328). This restriction was not removed until 1961. Moreover, many of black clubs was fighting against discrimination in golf. In 1950’s, middle-class blacks create the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The black elite led in developing their organization to promote golf among African American. “Little progress had been made in terms of significant increase in the number of African American playing on PGA tour since Sifford gained full PGA membership status in 1964” (Dawkins 329). However, racism against backs ... ... middle of paper ... ...cy." Western Journal Of Black Studies 28.1 (2004): 327-331. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. Donna A. Lopiano “Modern Hisory of Women In Sports” Clinics in Sports Medicine19.2 (2000): 163-173. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 April. 2000. Kirsch, George B. "Municipal Golf And Civil Rights In The United States, 1910-1965." Journal Of African American History 92.3 (2007): 371-391. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. McGinnis, Lee Phillip, James W. Gentry, and Julia McQuillan. "Ritual-Based Behavior That Reinforces Hegemonic Masculinity In Golf: Variations In Women Golfers' Responses." Leisure Sciences 31.1 (2009): 19-36. Academic Search Premier. Web. 18 Sept. 2013. Napton, Darrell E., and Christopher R. Laingen. "Expansion Of Golf Courses In The United States." Geographical Review 98.1 (2008): 24-41. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.
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