References Mason, L. K., & Diltz, P. D. (2010). Factors that influence pre-service administrator’s views of appropriate school counselor’s duties. Journal of School Counseling, 8(5), 2-28. Janson, C., Militello, M., & Kosine, N. (2008). Four views of the professional school counselor principal relationship: a q methodology study.
Introduction The theme of the research is to discover why there is such a vast educational gap between minority and Caucasian students. Many American are unaware that such an educational gap actually exists among today’s students. This article informs us of alarming statics, such as of African American students representing a majority of the special education population, despite only making up roughly 40% of the student population. It also breaks down key events that contributed to the poor education that minority children are currently receiving. For example, in the past, it was illegal to educate African Americans and when it became legal to blacks were treated as second class students.
“Brown vs. Board of Education” made it a federal crime to segregate children based on race in 1954. On the other hand, “Plessy vs. Ferguson” concluded that “separate but equal” was justified in America’s education system in 1896. Fifty years later after “Brown vs. Board of Education” according to author Jonathan Kozol, the school systems are run more like a separate but unequal system. Kozol states that today’s schools are just as segregated as they were before 1954 and funding is seriously inadequate for those in the urban areas where most attendee’s are African American and Hispanic. This inadequate funding has led to overcrowding, dilapidation of the schools, a decreasing number of on-site health officials, and lack of an enriching educational program.
Revisiting the importance of the direct effects of school leadership on student achievement: The implications for school improvement policy. Peabody Journal of Education, 82(4), 724-736. Rettig, P. R. (2004). Beyond organizational tinkering: A new view of school reform. Educational Horizons, 82(4), 260-265.
Teaching teachers to build equitable classrooms. Theory into Practice, 45(1), 32-9. doi: 10.1207/s15430421tip4501_5 Rubin, B. C. (2006). Tracking and detracking: Debates, evidence, and pest Practices for a heterogeneous world. Theory Into Practice, 45(1), 4-14. Retrieved from ERIC.
References Head Start Program Performance Standards, (2013), retrieved from Ecklc website May 28, 2014: www.ecklc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov Howard, T. (2010). Why race and culture matter in schools: Closing the achievement gap in America’s classrooms. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Spring, J. (2014).
Positive policies on discipline are being put into measure as a way of reducing the cases of racial discrimination as it affects learning of students negatively and eventually leads to failure of the students. This proposal seeks to investigate the extent of racial discrimination in public schools and then present possible solutions to the issue in American society. Problem Statement It is worthy to make a note that most of the students suspended and expelled in American schools are the African Americans who are ill-treated in school thus making their school life problematic. Out of 100% of students in American schools 63% of the students expelled are African Americans. Indeed, Blank et al (2004 p.108) argues that the big gap between African-American expulsion rates in comparison with other races is an indication of racial prejudice that is inherent in the American school system.
Resource scarcity and lack of opportunity repeatedly are presented as the only conceivable explanations for poor performance in education. Besides that, highly diverse educated groups explained for low academic achievement of black children positioned the problem in the children themselves and in their families. An essence are unchallengeable, according to this view, as Palen (2001) narrated that “Inequality, it claims, is natural, those who prove themselves superior in the competitive struggle are superior from birth and their strength lies in their genes.” (p, 13). Thi... ... middle of paper ... ...Child Left Behind Act, voucher or choice, and charter schools can improve our children's academic performances, especially minority students. For example, debate over school vouchers is that minority families will be mostly expected to leave the public schools and enroll their children in private schools if given the opportunity.
The authors use different indices on how school segregation is measured, being the measurement of isolation or exposure and measures of unevenness. Indices of unevenness measure the extend to which a student population is unevenly distributed among schools, and in contrast, the indices of exposure or isolation measure the extent to which students are enrolled in schools with high or low proportions of a given racial group. (pg. 202) The research done by Readron & Owens demonstrates the different levels of segregation student’s experience, and the consequences it leads to. School resources are distributed among students unevenly, meaning the teachers will be less skilled, there will be less exposure to more challenging curriculum.