The general intelligence proponents believe that there is one factor from which all intelligence is derived; the multiple intelligences proponents believe that there are different kinds of intelligence. Each theory has merit and evidence to support its claims. Two major schools of thought on the nature of intelligence. The first, supported by such psychologists as Eysenck, Galton, Jensen, and Spearman, believe that all intelligence comes from one general factor, known as g. The proponents of the other school of thought include Gardner, Sternberg, and Thurstone. These psychologists think that there is more than one general type of intelligence, or in other words, that there are multiple types of intelligences.
Throughout history, psychologists have made hundreds of attempts to define intelligence and measure it precisely. However, none of these attempts have been accepted by all because Intelligence is so broad. Intelligence has been defined by many things, by Weschler, who made the most used psychological test today, as “the global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.” However, while he may have created the most successful test, his definition is not the only definition of intelligence, for psychologists such as Gardner, believed that there was more than just knowledge to intelligence, and Sternberg, who defined intelligence as “mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life.” Intelligences has been measured in a variety of ways throughout psychologists, however because intelligence is such a broad concept, there is no single definition and method of testing it. The first attempt of testing intelligence was made by Binet in the early 1900’s. Binet was asked to make a test by the French government that could measure the intelligence of children in order to make a distinction between the kids who needed more help in school and those who are naturally inclined to be good learners.
When a person utters the word “intelligence,” people tend to think of a genius like Albert Einstein developing some obscure equation that the great majority of the population will never understand. The problem with the definition of intelligence is that people relate intelligence to words like “genius” which require intelligence but do not have the same definition as intelligence. Often, people try to use related words to define intelligence, but these words are unable to define intelligence since many are only different levels of intelligence. While many definitions try to encompass the meaning of intelligence and various definitions describe a small part of intelligence, no definition completely explains intelligence, because intelligence is a concept that is understood only after realizing that intelligence is based on three basic concepts: logic, growth, and emotion. Although many people believe that humans are the only creatures capable of intelligence, other animals exhibit intelligence and are capable of further demonstrate the complex concept of intelligence.
Science “… assumes that the universe is, as its name implies, a vast single system in which the basic rules are everywhere the same” (Rutherford & Ahlgren, 1990). This quote implies that for a subject to be considered a science, all of its concepts must be of similar origin. For the case of Psychology, this is not true; however, Psychology is, in fact, a mature paradigmatic science which consists of one paradigm and resulted in a revolutionary change. Psychology consists of many different schools of thought which supports the notion, previously mentioned, that reinforces that it is not a very mature science. Behaviorism, Gestalt, Psychoanalysis and Functionalism are the schools of thought of Psychology.
If this is so, a machine could then be described with the same qualifying words we use to describe a human. Is a machine then bright, smart, stupid or clever? If we define intelligence as ““a likeness to the human mind,”” the human characteristics that Webster failed to capture in its definition, are encompassed in a separate humanistic definition of intelligence. However, where Webster and Encarta are too broad, the humanistic definition may be too tight. It is commonly agreed that humans are all intelligent beings, however it does not necessarily follow that humans are the only intelligent beings.
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Each philosopher has his or her own belief concerning what an AI program should be able to do. Without a consensus as to what constitutes intelligence, it is impossible to determine with universal agreement whether or not AI has succeeded, is achievable, or is an unreachable dream. In considering the definitions and implications of Artificial Intelligence, many philosophers have reached extremely different conclusions. Alan Turing, author of the Turing Test, believed that an intelligent machine would be able to imitate perfectly a human. Margaret Boden, Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Sussex, contends that a machine is intelligent if it possesses and displays certain human values.
Introduction Cognitive psychology refers to the scientific investigation of human mental faculties, i.e. perceiving, learning, remembering, reasoning, thinking, and understanding. From within this extensive subject appears the ongoing debate concerning human intelligence. One of the most elusive foci of cognitive psychology, due to difficulties with defining and measuring it, intelligence is nevertheless the most intriguing as psychologists the world round study and attempt to further our understanding of it. In recent years, discoveries have shed light on, with hindsight, a rather biased view on whether intelligence is determined solely by genetics or our environment.