The Scarlet Letter. 3rd ed. Eds. Seymour Gross, Sculley Bradley, Richard Croom Beatty, and E. Hudson Long. New York: Norton, 1988.
Ed. Peter Gay. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1989. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents.
Literature: Fiction. 9th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2005. (416-430). O'Connor, Flannery.
Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography. New York: Norton, 1989. Print.
Crime and Punishment revolves around Raskolnikov and his amplifying guilt after he murders the pawnbroker, Alyona. From the beginning of the novel his poverty is displayed in his living condition, which is further described by the “yellowish dusty wall-paper peeling off the walls” (Part 1. 3) and the sofa that Raskolnikov designates as his bed is “taking up almost the whole of one wall and half the width of the room, and with a print cover now old and worn into holes” (Part 1.3). Raskolnikov is disgusted by the way he lives and even more appalled by the depressing city of St. Petersburg that is full of unemployed drunken men and molesters. The repugnance of the city is further explained to have an “insufferable stench from the pothouses, which are particularly numerous in that part of the town, and the drunken men” (Part 1.
Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. Goerge Gibian. New York: Norton, 1989.
3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1989. Print. Leatherbarrow, William J. "Chapter 4: The Principle of Uncertainty: Crime and Punishment."
Trans. Jessie Coulson. Ed. George Gibian. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1989.