The Meaning Phenomenon: Literature Review

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How people understand meaning can be defined in several ways. Linguistic meaning is a special subset of the more general human ability to understand signs or symbols (Saeed, 2003). The process of creating and interpreting symbols, sometimes called signification, is far wider than language. De Saussure, (1974) has argued that the study of linguistic meaning is a part of this general study called semiotics that studies the use of sign systems. Semioticians investigate the types of relationship that may hold between a sign and the object it represents, Or, in de Saussure's terminology, between a signifier and it’s signified. To describe meaning fully, we have to make reference to three principal terms: language, the world, and the human mind. Ogden and Richards (1945), call these three aspects of the meaning phenomenon often symbolized as the ‘semiotic triangle. At the top of the triangle is what Ogden and Richards (1945) called ‘thought’. This reflects, language comes from human beings, and is therefore ultimately a product of processes in the brain. The leftmost point of the triangle, the ‘symbol’, is the straightest forward. The symbol, in this terminology, is whatever perceptible token is chosen to express the speaker’s intended meaning. The last apex of the triangle is the ‘referent’, or whatever things, events or situations in the world the language is about. The semiotic view is currently the most referred to in literature on natural language processing: meaning results of a relation between a signifier (an expression) and a signified (that to what is referred to). Allwood and Gärdenfors (1999) have differentiated the two approaches of this relation: realistic and cognitive. The fu... ... middle of paper ... ...wing iterations. Unfortunately, these bad examples may subsequently result in more incorrect relations generated in the process. To solve this problem, Snowball introduces automatic pattern and relation tuple evaluation to the system before accepting them in the next iteration. This research, therefore, will investigate how and to what extent the semantics relations correspond to the relationships that obtain between entities in reality denoted by these terms. To deal with this, deep semantic analysis methods will be considered for rigorous extraction of semantic knowledge from domain specific textual document collections, i.e. medical documents. Therefore, the proposed research for pattern and relation extraction will follow the principle of these two adaptive methods: DIPRE and Snowball approach, for the relationship extraction task from natural language text.
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