The Main Outcomes of the Industrial Revolution

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The Main Outcomes of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution had a huge impact on society. The major effects were socially and economically. It is rather difficult to date the start of the industrial revolution but history books of today suggest the onset during the 18th century.

The change from agriculture to industry was vast and it must be remembered that England was the first country to undergo this profound change. The initial effect on engineering industries arising at the start of the Industrial Revolution were due partly to the geographical location of the resources i.e. coal iron and water. The inventiveness of our ancestors in these as well as other industries such as textiles chemical electrical and transportation contributed greatly to the Industrial Revolution.

The first two of these coal and iron provided the capital infrastructure and options for future development, whilst textiles supported and encouraged developments. Coal was originally mined by small group’s even families, using the long wall system. * SEE DIA 1. This technique was changed dramatically with the invention of the Commen engine. * SEE DIA 2. (named after its inventor THOMAS NEWCOMMEN) This was a pump that pumped the water out of coalmines allowing deeper more productive mines to be worked by more people. [This in turn had effects on the production of iron]

In the early 1700s iron was produced by burning vast quantities of wood. The production techniques were crude. Technology had already provided machines like the newcommen engine; this pumping device allowed ABRAHAM DARBY II to fill a millpond to power a water wheel for a blast furnace. This enabled the production of better quality pig iron. This technique provided the iron for the manufacture of one of the major symbols of the industrial revolution the Ironbridge over the river seven. * SEE DIA 3.

A water wheel also played a major part in one of the first inventions within the textile industry. RICHARD ARKWRIGHT invented the water frame for spinning (1769) this device was used by local man JEDEDIAH STRUTT in a mill at Cromford. The changes within the textile industry from wool to cotton called for more and more mechanisation. The mechanisation of the industry also led the setting up of the first factories; some of the first major mechanical devices were to be used in these factories. Such as JOH...

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...820 employers organisations registered, they mainly dealt with wage bargaining and labour questioning in general. A forum was created for the exchange of technical ideas and development. Pressure groups encouraged favourable legislation.

In today’s industry, employers’ organisations fall into two categories:

1. Those concerned with the common interest of a particular trade or technology. The engineering employers federation in London co-ordinates the engineering employers association, this operates at local level and is largely concerned with wage bargaining and representing engineering employers interests locally and nationally.

2. General groups of employers, for example, the confederation of British industry, this balances the role of the TUC this also acts as a pressure group encouraging favourable government response to the requirements of British industry at home and abroad.

There are also technical development associations, providing a forum for technical exchange, carrying out fundamental research on behalf of their member companies, one of these being the copper development association (C.D.A.). and the motor industry research association (M.I.R.A.).
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