According to National Geographic Magazine, a super volcano is a term used which describes explosions with exceptional violence and volume. The USGS states within the magazine article that super volcanoes are known for ejecting more than 1,000 cubic kilometers of pumice and ash. Super volcanoes are known to be approximately ten times larger and more powerful than an average volcano. This magazine also makes a known analogy that compares volcanoes and super volcanoes in a better perspective. It states that “volcanoes form mountains, super volcanoes erase them; Volcanoes kill plants and animals for miles around; super volcanoes threaten whole species with pure extinction by changing the climate across the entire planet.
The last volcano is called “Mt. Yasur” in Vanuata it is what’s called a stratovolcano and it has been erupting close to 100 years. The dangers of this volcano are real, it is a big risk for tourists. How, you may ask is, because of all the toxic gases and lava flows just to get to the volcano every day. The volcano has already took a couple of lives of tourists, and also a tour guide, because they got to close to the danger zone.
Millions of years ago, they created the continents, and the gases they produced condensed in the atmosphere to rain and form the oceans. Today, volcanic eruptions are some of the most feared natural disasters on the face of our planet. Their destructive forces are powerful enough to wipe out entire cities and kill countless numbers of people and wildlife. There are, however, other effects of volcanic eruptions that we don't hear about on the news. One eruption actually has the power to decrease the temperature all over the globe and create a dust cloud that could linger as long as five years.
Inner core has the highest temperature and density with the crust having the lowest temperature and density in comparison. The extreme pressure and temperature within the earth causes the hot magma (also known as lava when it is erupted to the surface) to rise and leak into the crust. The molten rocks are driven out from mantle upwards through crust to the surface which form volcanoes (Johnson 2009; Wikipedia, Mantle geology). Volcanoes are openings in the surface through which molten rocks (magma), gases and pyroclastic debris erupt from the Earth’s crust to the surface of the Earth (Bagley, 2013). Volcanoes are development of landforms with positive topographies (composite), but can be depression (calderas) or lack definite topography (fissure) (Grosse, Euillades & de Vries, 2014).
Due to this, the study of volcanoes and the service that volcanologists provide to the public by way of information and predictions on activity is immeasurable. Named for the Roman god Vulcan, volcanoes have both intrigued and frightened mankind for centuries. Human like footprints dating back 300,000 years have been found in the solidified lava of Roccamonfina volcano in Italy (Onion, 2013). These footprints, called the "Devil's Trail" appear to indicate that these ancestors were escaping an eruption. In Turkey, a 9,000 year old painting depicting a volcanic eruption was discovered in 1964 during an excavation of Catalhyuk (Oskin, B., 2012).
Volcanoes have played a key role in forming the face of the earth as we know it today. Some of the most well known landmarks and locations in the world are volcanoes. From the Hawaiian Islands to Mount Vesuvius, the Earth is populated with hundreds of active and dormant volcanoes. Among these volcanoes there are multiple different types. Stratovolcanoes, the most dangerous type of volcanoes, are built by multiple eruptions over many years.
Mono Basin Volcanism The last basin in the Basin and Range before the Sierra Nevada Mountain range is the Mono Basin. The Mono Basin consists of landforms such as the Mono-Inyo Craters, Black Point, Negit Island, Paoha Island, Mono Lake, Devils Punch Bowl, Panum Crater, and some others (Hamburger et al; 2004). All of these landforms were created by volcanism. Actually, the Mono Basin is in one of the most volcanically active places in the world (Forest Service; 2004). Paoha Island, Negit Island, and Panum Crater are the most recent volcanoes to erupt, which are the furthest north in the basin.
Volcanoes Volcanoes are natural phenomena which are on the Earth’s surface through which molten rock and gases escape from below the surface (Tarbuck, 139). These volcanoes are very interesting to observe and to study because of their amazing occurrences and majestic lava eruptions. Volcanoes have been studied ever since the beginning of mankind and the word “volcano” is thought to be derived from Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology. Consisting of several types, volcanoes can extrude several forms of magma and can also release multiple gases. These extruded materials can affect the Earth’s structure and atmosphere.
Valles Caldera Volcano The super volcano and the hot magma beneath the caldera can cause an eruption which will cover Las Alamos, and many small towns in the region Brandon Neel 4/9/2014 English 218 History One of the largest and youngest volcanoes and considered a super volcano in the United States is known as the Valles Caldera. The location of the volcano is in the Jemez Mountains by Santa Fe New Mexico. New research from the scientists in the Valles Caldera concerning ejected microscopic textured rock and hot magma beneath the caldera can cause an eruption which will cover Las Alamos, and many small towns in the area. The ejected textured rock from the eruption 60,000 years ago, illustrates that the Valles Caldera is in a new stage of volcanic activity. The hot magma beneath the crust may indicate an eruption tomorrow or near future.