Locus of Control, originally conceptualized by Julian Rotter (1966), has been found to be critical to numerous studies. Within psychology, it is considered to be a generalized expectancy regarding the forces that determine reinforcement. Individuals with internal orientation perceive rewards as contingent based on personal behavior, whereas those with external orientation attribute reinforcement received to external factors such as chance and powerful others (Levenson 1981). This essay examines the nature and significance of this psychological construct, especially in academic achievement and health domains. Additionally, it has been argued that high internality is positively associated with leadership while high scores of powerful others have detrimental impacts. Finally comes the argument that higher internality is beneficial for career and leadership.
The nature and the importance of the ‘Locus of Control’ construct
Theoretically derived from Rotter’s I-E Scale, the Levenson scale is extensively used because of its sufficient reliability and validity. Compared with overly simplistic I-E scale, this multidimensional approach is more convincible as it lessens ambiguous wording and almost deters social desirability bias which might arouse a loss of reality (Krampen 1981). In contrast, it may be argued that the I-E Scale is more widely applied. Central construct as it is, I-E scale is surrounded by other development of Locus of Control construct and may be more dominant in some domains. Riordan (1981) administered those two scales to South African students. Effectively, Rotter’s scale was found high reliability, together with the result that Black participants scored significantly less towards internality than White respondent...
... middle of paper ...
... pp. 159-168, viewed 4 April 2014, Tandfonline, doi: 10.1080/00224545.1981.9711654.
Rotter, J. 1966, ‘Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement’, Psychological Monographs, vol. 80, pp. 1-28, viewed 1 April 2014, PsycARTICLES, doi: 10.1037/h0092976.
Selart, M. 2005, ‘Understanding the role of locus of control in consultative decision-making: A case study’. Management Decision, vol. 43, pp. 397-412.
Spector, P.E. 1988,‘Development of the work locus of control scale’. Journal of Occupational Psychology, vol. 61, pp. 335-340, viewed 10 April 2014, Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1988.tb00470.x.
Wallston, B. S. and Wallston, K. A. 1978, ‘Locus of Control and Health: A Review of the Literature’, Health Education & Behavior, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 107-117, viewed 5 April 2014, Sage Journals, doi: 10.1177/109019817800600102.