John Watson followed up Pavlov with an experiment known as “Little Albert” that would test whether or not classical conditioning could be applied to humans (C). The combination of the two experiments left behind a set of principles and methods that allow us to apply classical conditioning to studies today. In Pavlov’s study of digestion in dogs, he began to recognize that the lab dogs would salivate before being given their food. He was curious about his observation and began to pursue further investigation. Paying closer attention, Pavlov noticed that the dogs would begin salivating when the research assistants entered the lab to feed the dogs (A).
Leave the cage door wide open so that the puppy doesn't run the risk of having it shut on him during his exploits. Let him take a few steps towards the cage, sniff it and go inside if he chooses. Reward him for investigating the cage without being fearful of it. Once the puppy has investigated the cage, encourage him to go inside. Do this by placing a food treat inside the cage, but near the front.
This was called the Little Albert study. The experiment was designed to test the theory that an infant could be conditioned to fear an animal that is shown at the same time that a loud noise is being made. In the beginning of the experiment the rat was shown to Albert with no loud noise. Albert showed no signs of fear. But when there was a loud noise made when the rat was shown he started crying and having avoidance showing signs of fear.
Thorndike based his study on the object that was being experimented on and if it could escape by accomplishing the same task by learning to do it over and over again. Skinner on the other hand wanted to know what level of difficulty the rat would go through to get food. (Iverson, 1992, P.1). Operant condition has been seen for a long pe... ... middle of paper ... ...r to get food the pig would have to climb the stairs, go through a cage, and slide down a slide in order to ring a bell and get fed a certain amount of food rewarded to him. This type of operant conditioning was positive reinforcement.
In Skinners experiments when a rat touched a lever it would receive food. This was the rat learning by positive reinforcement. However giving the rat an electric shock when he touched the lever showed the rat learning by negative reinforcement. The seemingly basic case of stimulus-response conditioning - Pavlov’s dog who having had a ringing bell and a piece of meat presented in quick succession several times comes to salivate for the bell alone shows how common it is to integrate cause and effect (Fauconnier, 2000) If the behaviourist view was correct all humans would act the same if thought in the same way. If you are to believe this behaviourist view all people will act the same if thought the
McLead (2007) explained that an operant condition means that using reinforcements given after a desired response could change behavior. There were three types of responses that can follow the behavior. Neutral operants, reinforces, and punishers were the three types of responses. According to McLead (2007), Skinner invented a box with levers and lights to test his theory. He placed a hungry rat inside where the rat learned to press the levels for different responses.
The podcast opens with an anecdote that at first seems unrelated to the main topic of disability as a social construct. The authors detail a science experiment in which rats are trained to run through a maze. However, through a careful analysis, it becomes clear that the example of training of rats is actually the same argument as the rest of the podcast, just through a different lens. Robert Rosenthal, a research Psychologist from the University of California Riverside, was featured in the podcast to present his experiment. He explained the scientific process of how he and his team divided a group of identical rats into two groups and labeled one group “smart” and the other “dumb.” He then had experimenters run the rats through a maze and record their times.
It was a slow process but the cat eventually learned and continued to do the same thing to exit the maze, which psychologist now call law of effect. A few decades later another man by the name of B. F. Skinner extended Thorndike’s ideas. Skinner tested his ideas and thoughts on rats. Much like Thorndike’s cat, Skinner would put his rats in a box and watch as the rats tried to solve how to get to a prize at the end. As Thorndike used a maze, Skinner’s rats had to pull a lever to be able to reach the treat.
We shall consider Skinner’s Operant Conditioning theory as another type of example on Conceptual Critiques (Skinner, 1963). His theory states that the best way to understand a behavior is to look at the association made between the behavior and the consequence of that behavior. Although Skinner’s primary interest was in human behavior, most of his research was done on animals using laboratory apparatus well known as the Skinner box. Hence, in his experiment, Skinner placed rats in the Skinner box and observed its’ behaviors. Initially, these rats would be randomly moving around exploring, and would usually press the bar accidently.
Behaviorism is an essential part of our daily lives since it reflects how we learn and deal with varying circumstances. Schacter, Gilbert and Wegner (2011) states that behaviorism restricts psychologists to focus purely on observable behavior; it rejects the emphasis of the conscious and unconscious mind (p. 16). Ivan Pavlov, who was a Russian physiologist, discovered this concept when he researched the role that saliva played on digestion. In his experiment, he gave the dogs’ meat powder to see how they would salivate to it. After a while, he noticed that the dogs’ salivated even before he gave them food; if the dogs’ saw the white lab coat, put in the harness, hear the sound of a buzzer, or the ringing of a bell.