Conclusion: • It can be concluded that childhood is the most important stage of human life. The development is this stage reflects in the nature of the human in their adulthood. The child’s development and mental or physical health is important to construct the goals and objects of life in future. The acquired values and learning in this stage helped a human being to reset or modify their goals in their adulthood. In the conclusion, it can be state that people reconstruct their life according to their loss and gains in the life.
As per Mabey and Sorensen (1995) a young person moves from being part of a peer group and to standing as an adult. According to Merriam Webster, adolescence is a period of life when a child develops into an adult, the period from puberty to maturity terminating legally at the age of majority. It is the state or process of growing up and development prior to maturity. According to Erikson (1959) described it as a process of individualisation and Freud (1958) also analysed it as a developing sense of detachment from parent. Adolescence period is a very important and exciting stage in life that are marred by many stages of development and challenge, it is a time when adolescent experiment so many things that can either make or break their life and future, a period of exposure, it is a very unstable, inconsistent and emotional period, there are different stress and storms attached with adolescence.
The process of human development across the lifespan is multifaceted and incorporates physical, cognitive, psychosocial and psychosexual developmental milestones. This essay will discuss the life transition of adolescence, exploring self-identity, identify some of the predictable and non-predictable life events during adolescence, as well as explain the implications for nurses and midwives caring for adolescents. This essay will incorporate the ideas and research of two leading theorists, Erikson and Kohlberg in an attempt to explain the psychological reasoning behind some of the changes across this life-transition. The life-transition of adolescence occurs between the ages of twelve and twenty years and is representative of many changes
Identity development starts with infants discovering of self which continues throughout childhood and become the focus of adolescence. According to Erik Erikson the goal of adolescence is achieving a coherent identity and avoiding identity confusion. Identity consists of many aspects; physical and sexual identity, beliefs, ethnics background and much more. Adolescence explores these aspects of identity as they move into early adulthood, although sometimes there are things that influence change in these aspects of their identity as life conditions and situations alter. Identity Development begins with children’s awareness and that the belief that they are unique individual’s and not exactly the same as their friends.
The specification of a person is determined in adolescence. The outside factors of someone’s life influence how they develop as a person and they direct one’s lifestyle and actions. Such as, parents, experiences, abilities and disabilities, age, and gender. Parents play an incredibly important role in identity development for children. Especially when young people are emerging into the unknown world of adulthood.
Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood which occurs from the ages 13 to 19. During this stage, puberty begins where a rapid physical growth and sexual maturations take place (Berger, 2001). According to Feist & Feist (2009), psychosocial development during this stage can be simply described as the quest for self-understanding to find their own identity which they will experience identity versus identity confusion crisis. Identity can be defined as the uniqueness of an individual in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs and aspirations. Adolescents set their own identities by considering the goals and values set by their parents, culture then accepting or rejecting others (Berger, 2001).
Erik Erikson (1963) proposed 8 sequential stages that individual needs to pass through for a healthy development. In each stage, the person is confronted with basic conflicts, the successful resolution of which would lead to the development of a virtue. If unresolved, they experience a crisis respective to that stage which may be resolved later in life. Crucial to the early adulthood stage is the stage of intimacy vs isolation. According to Erikson (1963), healthy identity formation in the adolescence period is a necessary precursor for intimacy in romantic relationship during early adulthood.
During this stage adolescence are most concerned with their body image and how they appear to others. The adolescent is going through puberty and experiences profound bodily changes. This is the transition period from childhood to adulthood and is the time when we develop our sense of identity. I feel that having a sense of identity is important in giving young adults a sense of direction with regards to their future and what they want to accomplish in life. In conclusion I feel that as a nurse and parent it is very important to have an understanding of the various stages children go through.
Adolescence is a time of great change for a child. It is a time where they begin to explore who they are as individuals and develop their own identities as they get closer into adulthood. Erik Erikson theorized that in adolescence “the main task is developing an identity” and that a healthy identity is developed when they try on alternate identities and reflect on these experiences (Pressley & McCormick, 2007,p.147). Michael Nakkula says “identity is not the culmination of a key event or series of events, although key events can play an important role in the larger process. It is rather, the lived experience of an ongoing process-the process of integrating successes, failures, routines, habits, rituals, novelties, thrills, threats, violations, gratifications, and frustrations into a coherent and evolving interpretation of who we are.
Piaget gives an illustration of the cognitive development associated with adolescence by using Kelly, who is an adolescent girl at the age 13. He states that during the transition from childhood to adulthood people undergo many changes physically, emotionally and psychologically. They are likely to grow taller which makes them look more like adults. They also start experimenting on who they are, finding ways for them to be unique and also they begin to think differently. Piaget also states that the formal stage of development, that is capable of making an individual able to think abstractly and manipulate the world in their mind, begins at age 11 and it develops at a slow rate over the teenager’s years.