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The Legalization of Same Sex Marriage

analytical Essay
3166 words
3166 words
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There is a war being fought over how to define the term "marriage". This argument is fierce due the fact that the definition of marriage is being challenged on the basis of it’s morality or, in other words, whether it is right or wrong. Many conservative organizations such as religious and other social conservative groups contend that the definition of marriage should remain as or return to being the formal union of one man and one woman or in other words, a heterosexual couple, via legal commitments and/or religious ceremonies citing religious and social reasons. The other more liberal groups such as gay rights groups on the other hand contend that the traditional view is outdated and that nations should either adopt or retain the official recognition of the marriage of same sex unions as legitimate marriage stating that same sex couples composed of consenting adults should be allowed to the rights and responsibilities that come with marriage. Despite the calls to bestow upon consenting adults in same sex couples the rights and responsibilities of marriage, this should not be done on the basis of the morality and social implications of doing so.

In order to analyze this issue in a comprehensive manner one must analyze it from a normative ethical perspective. Normative ethics is the branch of ethics, the branch of philosophy that is defined as the science of human conduct that investigates the criteria of what should be considered right or wrong. The basis for using a normative ethical approach to resolve this is that the issue is within the scope of the field of applied ethics, the branch of philosophy that deals with specific, and controversial moral issues such as abortion, the death penalty and applied ethics has it’...

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..., Gregory. "“SUFFER THE CHILDREN”: WHAT’SWRONG WITH GAY ADOPTION?" Christian Research Journal 28.2 (2005). Print.

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Sachs, Joe. "Aristotle: Ethics." http://www.iep.utm.edu/. Ed. John-Stewart Gordon and Michael Boylan. I.E.P, 11 Apr. 2001. Web. 8 Mar. 2011.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. "Consequentialism." http://plato.stanford.edu/. Ed. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Julia Driver, and David Brink. S.E.P, 20 May 2003. Web. 8 Mar. 2011. .

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PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

In this essay, the author

  • Argues that the definition of marriage is being challenged on the basis of its morality or, in other words, whether it is right or wrong.
  • Defines normative ethics as the science of human conduct that investigates the criteria of what should be considered right or wrong.
  • Explains that deontology is the blanket term for a broad array of normative ethical theories that state that an action is determined as being either right or wrong morally based on the consequences of the action.
  • Explains that the loudest voice of opposition to the idea of legitimizing same sex marriages is from the believers in the divine command theory, which postulates that moral wrongness is based solely on the command of a given supreme being.
  • Explains that the theory of natural law is the other major theory that underpins the opposition to same sex marriage.
  • Explains jus naturale, the natural law, or legal principles, supposed to be discoverable by the light of nature or abstract reasoning.
  • Explains that the natural law theory states that laws exist in and therefore are to be derived from nature. they state that gay marriages should not legitimized on the basis that homosexual relationships are unnatural.
  • Analyzes how deontological criticisms of the legalization of same sex marriage have come under fire by counter-arguments from pro-gay marriage supporters.
  • Explains that those who argue against legitimizing same-sex marriage have responded to counterarguments with effective refutations.
  • Explains that the counter argument that homophobia is the motivation behind the opposition to gay marriage has been refuted as being an ad hominem attack, due to the fact that just because someone disagrees with anything that another person does doesn't mean that he or she will necessarily hate, fear or unfairly discriminate against that person.
  • Argues that the opposition to gay marriage on the basis of the natural law theory can be refuted in two ways. one is that allegedly homosexual behavior in the animal kingdom is not being performed for the sake of sexual pleasure.
  • Explains the second branch of normative ethics that is to be analyzed with regard to this issue is consequentialism, which states that the morality of a given action is based on whether or not the consequences are deemed as being good.
  • Explains that the main source of opposition to the legalization of same sex marriages comes from deontologists, but they have contributed arguments of a preference utilitarian nature.
  • Argues that the enforcement of the traditional definition of marriage by the state is good for society because traditional marriages produce children and same sex unions do not.
  • Argues that the rejection of the legitimization of same sex marriages would be good for society because it would encourage the propagation of a better environment in which to raise children.
  • Argues that heterosexual couples are inherently better suited to raising children than same sex couples, citing sociologist david popenoe.
  • Explains that fathers stress competition, challenge, initiative, risk taking, independence, while mothers stress emotional security and personal safety. both dimensions are critical for efficient, balanced, and humane child-rearing.
  • Concludes that same-sex couples are inherently incapable of raising balanced offspring. children raised without fathers are more likely to drop out of school and do drugs.
  • Explains that both consequentialist criticisms of the legalization of same sex marriage have come under fire by counter arguments from pro-gay marriage supporters.
  • Explains that the preference utilitarian approach has been countered by same sex marriage sympathizers as being outdated. egoism is a form of consequentialism that considers an action to be morally correct if the consequences advance the self interest of the moral agent who committed it.
  • Argues that studies released by the american psychological association allegedly prove that same sex families are just as competent as raising children as heterosexual couples.
  • Explains that those who argue against legitimizing same-sex marriage have responded to counterarguments with effective refutations.
  • Argues that the counter argument that love between consenting adults should be the new standard for who should have the right to marry is flawed as it does not take into consideration the serious social and financial ramifications of redefining something as fundamental to society as marriage and the family.
  • Refutes the counter argument that the american psychological association and other organizations had released studies that proven that same sex families are just as competent as raising children as heterosexual couples.
  • Explains that virtue ethics is the last of the three normative ethical theories to analyze with regard to this issue.
  • Argues that a virtuous action according to aristotle is the best action between the opposite extreme actions of deficiency and excess known as vices.
  • Explains that a counter argument that is usually used to respond to such an argument would cite homophobia as the root of an accusation.
  • Opines that the pro-gay side of the debate cannot come up with a substantive counter argument to defend their position.
  • Concludes that consenting adults in same sex couples should not be granted the rights and responsibilities of marriage based on the social implications and morality of legitimizing it.
  • Explains that deontological ethics can be found at http://plato.stanford.edu/.
  • Explains austin, michael w., "divine command theory." http://www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/
  • Explains hursthouse, rosalind, "virtue ethics." s.e.p, 18 july 2003.
  • Explains morgan, patricia. children as trophies? the christian institute, newcastle upon tyne, 2002.
  • Explains that rogers, gregory, "suffer the children": what'swrong with gay adoption.
  • Explains rothbard, murray n., the ethics of liberty, new york university press, 1998.
  • Explains sachs, joe, "aristotle: ethics." http://www.iep.utm.edu/aris-eth.
  • Explains sinnott-armstrong's "consequentialism" at http://plato.stanford.edu/.
  • Explains solimeo, luiz s. the animal homosexuality myth. spring grove: the american tfp, 2004.
  • Explains that sprigg, peter, the top ten myths about homosexuality. washington, dc: family research council, 2010.
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