A General Philip H. Sheridan “in command of the Army’s Department of the Missouri,” (“blackhillsvisitor.com”), in order to cease conflict established a fort near the Black Hills. He sent Lt. Colonel George A. Custer on an expedition to do reconnaissance on the Black Hills, a direct violation of the 1868 treaty. “Custer’s report of a gold discovery in the summer of 1874” (“blackhillsvisitor.com”), brought many gold seekers to illegally settle in the Black Hills. The U.S. Government not willing to remove the settlers and not being able to purchase the territory from the Indians, to keep the gold for themselves, alongside with the Indian raids on settlements led to the government ordering the return of the Indians back ... ... middle of paper ... ...bows and arrows.
Even with that protection of the land Americans will sneak in to find gold, which caused for the Indians to be displaced again. It made the Cheyenne and Arapaho move from the land that was once promised to them. Thus to find steady to the invasion, the government passed the "concentration" policy which stated that the Natives are to be paid to stay in general areas of land away from the major transportation routes. This policy didn't work as well as the government had thought so they implemented the "reservation" policy. The "reservation" policy was made so they could remove Native Americans from direct contact with the white migrants who were pressuring the governments for each territory that will ultimately destroy the Indians culture.
Maintaining large amounts of land has always been a goal for American government. During the 1830’s, vast amounts of Native Americans were being forcibly removed from their land so that the Americans could claim it as their own. With little defense compared to the Americans’ superior fire power, the Native Americans basically had no choice on whether or not they wanted to move west from their lands. One specific group of Native Americans that was unjustly removed from their lands was the Cherokee Indians. The Cherokee clashed with American government and did not willfully move out of their homelands in the southeastern parts of the United States.
These problems caused them to be driven from their homes then being put into internment camps, and then being forcefully moved to a strange land. The situation of the Cherokee got more complicated after the States Rights issue and a long fight between the federal government and Georgia. Such as, Georgia ceding its western lands were they wanted all titles of land that was heard by Indians to be extinguishing, but this did not happen because the Cherokees were certified by a treaty. When gold was found on Cherokee land the effort of removing them from their lands was increased. Then in 1830 the congress passed A Indian removal act that directed the Executive branch to make an agreement for Indian lands.
This created problems within the Native economy. In 1867, Sitting Bull became the first principal chief of the entire Sioux nation. When natives came to peace with the U.S. government, but Sitting Bull refused to attend the peace conference or sign the treaty. The Fort Laramie treaty promised the Black Hills would remain in the Sioux possession forever. When gold was discovered in the mid-1870's, press brought a rush of prospectors.
Also, "after gold was discovered on Cherokee property, the Indians were prohibited from digging or mining gold on their own land." Page 4 Although there are many theories as to why President Andrew Jackson did what he did, the goal of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 was concrete. "His congressional charge was to move them all west of the Mississippi to open up the trans-Appalachian southeast for a flood of settlers who had been spilling over that chain of mountains from the earliest days of the republic." As a result, the "monumental legislation spelled the doom of the American Indian," and the bliss of the white citizens and the states in which they resided.
This trail ran through Sioux territory into the gold mines of Montana. This attempt at utilizing Indian land to get at the gold brought about Red Cloud's war in which the U.S. army was brought to a complete halt. This was an embarrassment to the U.S. and through this slaughter brought about the second Treaty of Fort Laramie in an effort to bring about "peace". The second treaty enacted in 1868, was full of deception and disharmony. This short analysis of the treaty will examine the snares which were purposely weaved into the wording of this lengthy document, which benefited the United States and chipped away at the Native Americans culture, freedom, and land.
“American victory in Indian wars in the Ohio country seems inevitable” The annihilation of St. Claire’s army confirmed settlers fears and so they escalated the burden on congress to institute its power in the West. The Indian victory was temporary, but losing the war meant they also lost the life’s in a way. Their ancestral lands were what signified their being. “Three years later the federal government and its new army responded the prayers of Westerners by defeating the Indians and taking title to most of Ohio.” The called upon a treaty among the settlers and the Native Americans was evident. The chief signed the treaty to “wisely bury the hatchet forever” Many Indians suspected Americans of poisoning their leaders.
Native Americans used various forms of Guerilla warfare such as tactics, weather, and terrain to their advantage when facing United States (U.S.) Military. Guerilla warfare is a form of tactics used by an adversary against prodigious conventional military force. The disadvantages in numbers, tactics, and weapons systems would encourage significant failures in facing such a powerful enemy in open battle. The U.S. Military after the civil war confronted this new way of fighting for the first time within the western territories. The uprising by the Indians indicated that the Military leadership viewed the Native Americans as savages and did not recognize the underlying culture differences of the Indians.
Custer's promise happened to take place as a U.S. Senate commission meeting was taking place with the Lakota in an effort to purchase the gold mining fields in the Black Hills (which Custer had discovered a year earlier). The Lakota rejected the senate’s offer in favor of sticking with the 1868 treaty that promised protection of their lands. In spite of this treaty, LTC Custer was used by the government to assist in the removal of the natives living in the Northern Plains (Fox, 1997). PMESII-PT Political. As an esteemed war hero during the Civil War, Custer was an icon who carried the support of the American people.