It was quite obvious that the United States did not want to be there – and for good reason. The reason had everything to do with cost and benefit. The Protocols would require that the United States reduce its 2008 – 2012 overall greenhouse emissions by about a third of the current levels. The economic costs are quite significant and the benefits are not. Tom Wigley, a senior scientist at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, calculated “saved” warming under the assumption that every nation met its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol.
In 1994, after 50 countries ratified the convention, the UNFCCC entered into force. The objective of convention established some legal instruments to stable greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. In addition, the UNFCCC established the Conference of the Parties as a subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice. On the third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto, Japan, the world adopted Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol would act as a legal instrument to reduce voluntary overall worldwide greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% for the period 2008-2012 compared to 1990 base year.
Seattle Times Company. June 2004. <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/trinity/articles/part2.html>
The gases responsible for this effect include carbon di... ... middle of paper ... ...ronment & Behavior, 45(1), 60-85. doi:10.1177/0013916511421196 Editorial Board. (2013, October 20). Congress turns a blind eye to global warming. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/congress-turns-a-blind-eye-to-global-warming/2013/10/20/b5e42594-36b8-11e3-8a0e-4e2cf80831fc_story.html Kessel, D. G. (2000).
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was adopted in 1992 to address global warming and was brought into force in 1994. The third session of the Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC (COP3) was held in Kyoto in 1997, where the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. The Protocol stipulates that 38 countries, including developed countries and economies in transition, will reduce their Green House Gases (GHGs) including CO2 respectively to total emissions 5.2% below the 1990 level during the period from 2008 to 2012. For example, reduction below 1990 levels of 8% is required for the EU, 7% for the U.S., 6% for Japan, and 0% for Russia. Even though the protocol was adopted, this treaty can take effect only if it gets approval from countries with an emissions cap whose aggregate 1990’s emissions is more than 55% of the total CO2 emissions in 1990 of capped parties.