The Juvenile Justice System

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The history of the juvenile system started many years ago, before any of us within present society were born. The juvenile justice system is defined as, “A system to handle juveniles separate from the adult offenders, based on the concept of parens patriae, which was used as the basis for giving the court the authority to take over supervision of children when their parents failed to provide care and guidance.” (Seiter) The word parens patriae means “parents of the nation,” established in 1601 to allow officials to take charge of delinquent children and place them in poorhouses or orphanages to gain control of them; in the more modern times, this doctrine was expanded as the basis for juvenile court and correctional systems to take responsibility…show more content…
The Juvenile Court Period (1899-1960). “The juvenile justice system was not created until Illinois passed the Juvenile Court Act, the first court was established in cook County (Chicago) in 1899. The use of a separate juvenile court, initiated in Cook County, proved to be popular, and by 1925 all but two states had established juvenile courts or probation departments separate from their adult systems.” (Seiter) This was to be done for the best interest and well-being for juveniles and their environment by separating them from adult offenders. This is done because juveniles are not adults and therefore they should not be housed with them in an institution. The Juvenile Rights Period (1960-1980). This was a period of time of many changes for juvenile justice such as; “Due Process; Kent vs U.S. (1966)-Waiver Requirements for transfer, In re Gault (1967) Right to Counsel, Right against self-incrimination, Right to confront witness. In re Winship: “Beyond a reasonable doubt” required for conviction in criminal cases, Breed vs Jones: Double Juvenile Justice…show more content…
The main focus of the period was, “Shift from medical (treatment) model to justice model and “get tough” attitude; “best interests” of society gained ascendancy over those youths; Supreme Court approves of preventive detention for youths-Schall decision (1984); emphasis on deterrence and just deserts.” (Hess, Orthmann and Wright) As times have changed, so has the actions and crimes of juveniles. Juveniles are presently doing more drugs, using alcohol, as well as school shootings and other crimes within society. In the case of Schall vs Martin (1984), “states have the right to place juveniles in preventive detention to protect society when the juvenile is dangerous.” (doctor.com) When a juvenile is to be dangerous for a crime that they have committed, it is best that they are to be detained within a juvenile facility until their time of trial, to face the crime that they were to commit. The period that I think was the most influential to the evolution of the juvenile justice system is, The Crime Control Period (1980- Juvenile Justice History Present). I state this because, all five periods of juvenile justice history are important and each has served as a good and basic foundation from one period to the next. Each period is to be a learning process that can be used to what was to work and what was to fail. Within todays’ society, there are to be more programs and laws that are to be available to help troubled juveniles. This
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