The Joy of Intolerance

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I assume that the feeling of evil is more widespread than the feeling of good. That is why intolerance as an attitude appears to be even more common than tolerance. This thesis is justified by psychological and sociological theories which, by analyzing the psyches of humans as individuals and of societies, explain why intolerance, destruction and aggressiveness control our actions so frequently. Therefore, in spite of positive intentions inherent in every person who dreams about being the best and living as decently as possible, an honest picture of our time evokes a rather pessimistic disposition. Although a lot has been done to implement a principle of ethical minimalism in society, at the same time there is also a moral approval — though with no one willing to admit it! — for integration mechanisms based on xenophobia.

Tolerance and its contradiction - intolerance constitute centuries-old problems of human existence. We have been disturbed by them over and over again. This is connected with man's constant longing for the paradise lost which is unattainable because of man's ill will. It is a consequence of the fact that each of us creates an ideal image of himself and a place in which he lives. We dream of a flourishing and cultivated garden-like city. Civitas humanitas can spread over the whole Earth and we do not lose hope in it. The only thing we do not know is who will be capable of building this civitas. (1)

Charles Peguy, whose style was described by Andre Gide as a style of the advancing wave which consequently moves back in order to mark even wider curve on the sand, created a vision of a paradise city almost a century ago. He wrote: "All people of all families, all people of all the lands which are distant to us...

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... Attitudes in South Africa, London 1937, p.252

(8) Almond, G.: The American People and Foreign Policy, New York 1960.

(9) Terhune, K.W.: Nationalism Among Foreign and American Students, 1964.

(10) Staub: op.cit, s.70.

(11) Cassirer, E.: Esej o cz&#sup3;owieku, Warszawa 1977, p.128

(12) Ibid.,p.21.

(13) Reykowski, J.: Motywacje, postawy prospo&#sup3;eczne a osobowoϾ, Warszawa 1980, p. 9.

(14) Kozielcki, J.: Koncepcja transgresyjna cz&#sup3;owieka, Warszawa 1987, p.51

(15) Staub: op.cit., p.71.

(16) Ibid., p.72.

(17) Chenu, M.D.: Ku powszechnej cywilizacji pracy, Warszawa 1963.

(18) Gumpowicz, L.: System socjologii, Warszawa 1887, p.251.

(19) Fornary, F.: Psychoanaysis of War, New York 1974.

(20) Horney, K.: Nerwica a rozwój cz&#sup3;owieka, Warszawa 1978.

(21) Money-Kyrle, R.E.: Psychoanalysis and Politics, London 1951, p.113.

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