The J.F.K. Assassination
The 1960 Presidential election was won by John F. Kennedy who defeated the incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon by the narrowest margin in history. Kennedy, a senator from Massachusetts was the only Roman Catholic and the youngest man elected to the presidency. In 1963, during his third year in office President Kennedy's popularity increased and he had already started planning for his reelection campaign. On the morning of November 23, 1963, the President flew to Dallas where he was to speak at a lunch held at the Trade Mart. As the presidential motorcade drove from Love Field toward the Trade Mart, it drove through Deally Plaza where Kennedy was shot. Shortly after the assassination of the President, Lee Harvey Oswald was apprehended as the alleged assassin.
In 1991 10% of the American public agreed with the Warren Commission Report findings that Lee Oswald was JFK's lone assassin, however, over half of the American public believed that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was somehow involved. President Harry S. Truman created the CIA with the signing of the National Security Act (NSA) on September 15, 1947. This act created the National Security Council (NSC) which combined all departments of the intelligence community for the army, navy, and airforce and was responsible only to the President. The council had its own budget and trained its own personal, but was still prohibited from internal spying and clandestine or paramilitary operations (Marrs 182).
In 1949 the Central Intelligence Act was passed. This new act ensured that the CIA would not be obligated to disclose the names and number of personnel employed nor their functions, official titles or salaries. In addition, the CIA director wo...
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...gan and Oswald was set up as the easy mark. Only an agency trained in covert operations could possess the capabilities needed to initiate the assassination and the power to cover up their involvement.
Groden, Robert J., and Harrison Edward Livingston. High Treason: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the New Evidence of Conspiracy. New York: Berkey, 1990.
Lane, Mark. Rush to Judgement. New York: Thunders Mouth, 1992.
Mars, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. New York: Carrol and Graf, 1992.
Morrow, Robert D. First Hand Knowledge: How I Participated in the CIA- Mafia Murder of President Kennedy. New York: Shapolsky, 1992.
Prouty, Fletcher L. JFK: The CIA, Vietnam and the Plot to Assassinate John F. Kennedy With an Introduction by Oliver Stone. New York: Carol, 1992.
In this essay, the author
Recounts how kennedy won the 1960 presidential election by defeating nixon by the narrowest margin in history. kennedy was the only roman catholic and youngest man elected to the presidency.
Explains that in 1991, 10% of the american public agreed with the warren commission report findings that lee oswald was jfk's lone assassin, but over half believed that the central intelligence agency was somehow involved.
Explains the central intelligence act of 1949, which ensured that the cia would not be obligated to disclose the names and number of personnel employed nor their functions, official titles or salaries.
Explains how the cia initiated the overthrow of iran's government and overthrew the guatemalan government of jacobo arbenz.
Explains that the cia and refugees blamed kennedy because he refused to send in military air and naval support. allen dulles, charles cabell, and richard m. bissel were fired.
Explains the steps involved in planning the assassination of president kennedy. the plotters chose dallas as the site for the murder and selected a skilled group of sharpshooters.
Explains that the president was riding in a convertible limousine without the bulletproof bubble that was usually provided, instead of following the safer route through main street, he was led onto elm street the perfect ambush site
Analyzes how lee harvey oswald was arrested and charged with the murder of police officer j. d. tippit after kennedy's assassination.
Explains that oswald was taken to a top secret marine air base in japan, where he became fluent in writing and speaking russian, and left the service on three days' notice, claiming his mother was ill.
Explains that the warren commission was appointed by lyndon johnson to investigate the assassination of jfk.
Analyzes how stone describes the warren commission's magic bullet theory in the introduction to jfk: the cia, vietnam and the plot to assassinate john f. kennedy.
Explains that nitrogen gas and burning powder escape the weapon and are implanted on the skin. a paraffin test on oswald proved that he did not shoot the president.
Explains that the assassination's committee found there were at least two shooters and that there probably was a conspiracy.
Explains that the cia was an intelligence gathering and coordinating agency that overthrew governments and plotted the assassination of foreign leaders. kennedy's vietnamization policy was the first step involved in its elimination.
Opines that only an agency trained in covert operations could possess the capabilities needed to initiate the assassination and the power to cover up their involvement.
Explains groden, robert j., and livingston, harrison edward. high treason: the assassination of president john f. kennedy and the new evidence of conspiracy.
Explains morrow, robert d. first hand knowledge: how i participated in the cia- mafia murder of president kennedy.
Explains prouty, fletcher l. jfk: the cia, vietnam and the plot to assassinate john f. kennedy.
On November 22, 1963, at 12:30 in the afternoon, President John F. Kennedy was shot at and killed while participating in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas. The most important question that arises from this incident is ‘Who killed President John F. Kennedy?’ This is an issue which has been debated by scholars, The Government, and even common people alike. Many people seem to feel that it was a conspiracy, some large cover-up within a cover-up.
In this essay, the author
Explains that president john f. kennedy was shot at and killed while participating in a motorcade in dallas, texas.
Explains that the assassination was organized by the cia, fidel castro, an anarchist group, even by vice-president lyndon johnson. the evidence points to the fact that there was no conspiracy and that kennedy was killed by a lone gunman.
Explains that oswald was one of the few working in the building on that day, which raises even more suspicion about him. he had access to all the materials needed to kill the president.
Explains that the zapruder film is the only known footage of the assassination.
Concludes that lee harvey oswald was the lone assassin in the murder of president john f. kennedy.
A frequently used source is The Kennedy Tapes by Ernest R. May and Philip D. Zelikow as well as others. This book in particular delves into the tape recordings during those thirteen days between President Kennedy and his advisory committee, revealing information that could provide insight into what really happened in October, 1962.
In this essay, the author
Describes the repercussions of president kennedy and his executive committees' decisions during the cuban missile crisis.
Explains that the investigation will be an evaluation of president kennedy's executive committee and the repercussions of the decisions made during the cuban missile crisis.
Recommends the kennedy tapes by ernest r. may and philip d. zelikow, which delves into the tape recordings during those thirteen days between president kennedy and his advisory committee.
Explains that president kennedy was informed that the soviet union had placed nuclear missiles in sierra del rosario, cuba. kennedy created an executive committee, which included mcnamara and rusk.
Explains that president kennedy's excomm weighed the options of an air strike and a consultation with soviet leader nikita khrushchev. they also discussed the preparations for one of the biggest decisions in his presidency.
Narrates how kennedy pushed for a blockade of cuba, which was approved by the oas, and the soviet union's response.
Explains that the kennedy tapes, written by ernest may and philip zelikow, was a secondary source for the study of president kennedy and his executive committee during the cuban missile crisis.
Explains that the thirteen days: a memoir of the cuban missile crisis is a frequently used source for information on the decision-making of excomm.
Opines that president kennedy was in the midst of changing history forever. one decision could lead to nuclear warfare while another may permanently deteriorate the relationship with the soviet union.
Analyzes how rusk suggested involving the organization of american states, a pact of allies in the western hemisphere that would respond with aid when one of the member states was in aggression with another nonmember state.
Analyzes how the quarantine of cuba ended the thirteen-day crisis and put president kennedy and fidel castro in a difficult position.
Explains the purpose of the investigation was to discover the repercussions of president kennedy's decisions during the cuban missile crisis of 1962.
Analyzes how excomm's actions inhibited the use of nuclear weapons and caused permanent damage between two powerful countries.
Quotes may, ernest r., "john f kennedy and the cuban missile crisis." bbc news, 18 nov. 2013.
Describes stein, r. conrad, cuban missile crisis: in the shadow of nuclear war.
The Kennedy Assasination Mysteries
The Kennedy assassination was a huge part of the 1960's. It still is today due to the lack of information. This lack of information has caused the real truth to become hazy. There are numerous books, web sites, and reports that are filled with stories of conspiracy and lies that were supposedly involved in the Kennedy assassination.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the kennedy assassination was a huge part of the 1960's due to the lack of information.
Analyzes the mystery surrounding the kennedy assassination due to the unusual circumstances surrounding it.
Explains that the earlier assassinated presidents were killed up close, and all of the previous victims confessed to their crime, which made the kennedy as a difficult case to solve. many books and reports say lee harvey oswald didn't act alone.
Recounts how president john f. kennedy and his wife, jacqueline, were on their way to a luncheon in honor of them.
Narrates how the fbi found lee harvey oswald in the sixth floor window of the texas schoolbook depository building with a rifle. the police questioned him but he didn't confess to killing the president.
Explains that after the murders of the president and lee harvey oswald, there were many unanswered questions. the police and fbi began the investigation.
Explains that the fbi put all the information they have gathered in the warren report, which is named after earl warren, the chief justice on the supreme court.
Explains that many people didn't believe the warren commission report and started writing their own reports and books about the kennedy assassination.
Explains that conspiracy-oriented books feed on the "evidence" in the grassy knoll, based on shady shapes, puffs of smoke, and jerking back of the president when he was shot.
Analyzes how orville nix's shady figure appeared in the same location when filmed years after the assassination of the president.
Explains that the second shady figure capture on filmed did turn out to be human, dubbed "black dog man." in the film it showed a tan-colored object dropping down and to the left
Explains that the puffs of smoke seen on the grassy knoll were also used as evidence of shots being fired from a "second gunman."
Analyzes the "evidence" of a second gunman often seen in conspiracy-oriented books, such as the president's head jerking back at the moment he was shot.
Disproves the "evidence" that the goat was shot in the head while being held still. the president's autopsy showed the bullet had entered through the back of his head.
Explains that conspiracy-oriented books do not use the bullet entering and exiting the president's head and neck because it disproves the conspiracy theory.
Explains that the president made a pork leg neck to represent connally and shot at the "necks" from the same distance and position as lee harvey oswald.
Opines that while the evidence points to lee harvey oswald acting alone and the single bullet theory being correct, there is no positive truth. the kennedy assassination didn't happen when technological advances had been made.
The year of 1963 would be the year that would forever be remembered as the time when President John Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. On a warm Friday afternoon in downtown Dallas, perched on the top floor of the Texas School Book Depositary, Lee Harvey Oswald set aim on one of the more popular presidents of all time. This event impacted the history of the United States, and is one of the most talked about killings of all time.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how jack ruby shot lee harvey oswald two days after the assassination of john f. kennedy. the warren commission released a false report after nine months.
Explains why the warren report is false because it makes no sense that jack ruby would want to shoot oswald otherwise.
Analyzes how marian oswald was speechless when she found out that her husband lee shot the president of the united states. she didn't participate in any interviews for twenty years.
Concludes that the warren report was false and later used to cover up the death of john kennedy. the mob was involved with the planning assassination.
Explains that the paper aims to connect the shooting of the president with the mob, and lee harvey oswald.
Explains that president kennedy was assassinated by lee harvey oswald on a warm friday afternoon in downtown dallas. the warren commission's report has been questioned and supported by later studies.
The Assassination of J.F.K.
On November 22, 1963, American history changed forever. That day the presidential motorcade of President John F. Kennedy traveled down Elm Street in Dallas, Texas. As the limousine went down past The Texas School Book Depository shots were fired. These shots, said to have been fired by Lee Harvey Oswald, struck President Kennedy and Governor Connally. The wounds to President Kennedy were fatal.
In this essay, the author
Opines that the assassination of j.f.k. will never be forgotten by the american people, and the warren commission investigation will be cause of arguments in this country.
Explains the warren commission's lone gunman theory, which states that the shots which killed president kennedy and wounded governor connally were fired from the sixth floor window at the southeast corner of the texas schoolbook depository.
Opines that lee harvey oswald could not have acted alone from the book depository. callahan states that kennedy was shot with a 6.5 mannlicher-caracano rifle.
Explains the friendly fire theory, based on the research of ballistics expert howard donahue, which firmly believes that the fatal bullet must have traveled at a trajectory equal to the grade of the street.
Explains that the warren commission was in charge of investigating the assassination of the president, named after its head, supreme court chief justice earl warren.
Analyzes how cia concerns about the kennedy assassination were revealed in a declassified memo released april 1, 1967.
Explains that the memo came about due to increasing challenge to the warren commission report in a public opinion poll at the time.
Analyzes how the cia was worried that the people were not believing what the government told them. the agency would now try to discredit any of their involvement.
Analyzes how the subject of cuban involvement in the assassination was not considered during the warren commission investigation. dulles' actions lead one to think that the cia was involved in something with cuba.
Explains that the first was that he feared the international repercussions, while the second was sinister, saying the cia stayed silent about cuba because the evidence showed that some of the
Analyzes how the former head of the cia was trying to hide american involvement in the assassination. the warren commission didn't even talk to william harvey or maurice bishop.
Analyzes callahan's assertion that fbi and cia were not involved in the kennedy assassination. if the agencies had nothing to hide, they would have let these two men testify for the commission.
Narrates how hugh higgins, one of the agency's top assassins, personally killed 37 people while taking orders directly from the kennedys.
Explains that lee harvey oswald never fired a single shot. two of the shooters were cia contracted agents, and two were picked up by the cops and released.
Analyzes how higgins talked about the wounds to president kennedy during the autopsy which he claimed to have witnessed. this evidence shows that the findings of the warren commission were false.
Analyzes how the fbi found shell casings in the so-called sniper's nest aligned in a neatly spaced pattern.
Opines that the fbi planted the evidence in the sniper's nest, making it appear that there is a conspiracy being covered up by the government.
Explains that there were many officials in the government who stood to benefit from kennedy being assassinated, including vice-president lyndon johnson and fbi director j. edgar hoover.
Explains that hoover was going to lose his job if kennedy was in power. president johnson removed the mandatory retirement age for director of the fbi.
Analyzes how johnson and hoover were involved in kennedy's assassination, and how the u.s. reversed its policy on vietnam.
Concludes that there is a lot of evidence that points to the government being involved in the assassination.
Describes the works of matthew d. allen, bob callahan, bonar menninger, and mark north.
Fetzer, John H., ed. Murder in Dealey Plaza: What We Know Now That We Didn't Know Then about the Death of JFK. Open Court Publishing Company / October 2000
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the legend of the kennedy clan was seared in the dallas death throes, and in los angeles as a second brother fell by an islamic extremist.
Analyzes how the auto accident involving senator ted kennedy is presented by the media as a tragedy not because his aide died, but because the entire incident made unlikely any future presidential campaign.
Explains that the kennedy clan's 87 surviving members live worthy lives, with their family and personal debacles far below the national average. the great fortune of joe kennedy has been divided into trusts.
Explains that john h. fetzer, ed., murder in dealey plaza: what we know now that we didn't know then about the death of jfk. open court publishing company.
Explains that the kennedy clan is embedded in american political and social culture of the past half-century like no other family.
Analyzes perret, geoffrey, and anthony sferrazza's the kennedy white house: family life and pictures, 1961-1963.
The John F. Kennedy Conspiracy
On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy arrived in Dallas to a crowd of excited
people lining the streets hoping to get a glimpse of the President. As his motorcade proceeded down Elm Street, Governor Connally's wife said, "You can't say that Dallas isn't friendly to you today Mr. President. " Upon that, John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States was assassinated.
In this essay, the author
Explains the john f. kennedy conspiracy, which led to the assassination of the thirty-fifth president.
Explains that the bay of pigs was the spark that ignited the devastating fire. cia trained anti-castro expatriates were sent to seize cuba.
Explains that kennedy took full public responsibility for the bay of pigs disaster though secretly he blamed the cia.
Explains that there were three known attempts on taking jfk's life in the fall of 1963. vallee was arrested by the secret service in chicago days before a scheduled visit by kennedy.
Explains that joseph milteer outlined the details for the upcoming texas attempt to a police informant. none of these threats were forwarded to authorities in dallas.
Analyzes the amount of activity and suspicious incidents in dallas on november 22, 1963. the motorcade was supposed to take a relatively strait course through dealey plaza without passing by the book depository.
Explains that many photographers and people videotaping in the dealey plaza captured the devastating moments in which president kennedy was murdered.
Describes how the 'babushka lady' shot another film from a point where the depository windows and the grassy knoll could be seen clearly. the monday following the assassination two men, whom she believed to be secret service or fbi agents, appropriated the film.
Analyzes how the mysterious 'umbrella man' was in the crowd on the dealey plaza sidewalk. he is noticeable because he is the only one to bring an umbrella.
Analyzes the lack of secret service protection during the motorcade route and the shooting.
Opines that lee harvey oswald was the perfect pasty for the cia to mold.
Explains that the cia had people impersonate oswald to paint the picture that he was a crazed communist assassin.
Analyzes how lee harvey oswald is an exceptionally bad shot, but according to the official version, his acts were those of a champion marksman and olympic sprinter.
Analyzes how oswald collapses before the television cameras, his mouth shut by jack ruby, a two-bit gangster and minor trafficker in women and drugs.
Explains that president lyndon baines johnson set up a committee led by chief justice earl warren to conduct an official investigation into kennedy's murder.
Cites belzar, richard, and galeano, eduardo. "memory of fire: iii century of the wind" by cedric belfrage.
At the same time President Kennedy was shaking hands with the public a man by the name of Lee Harvey Oswald was going about a peculiar series of events, which no one thought to be out of character for a man with his level of social detachment. Oswald wrote, “I was the son of insurance agent whose early death left a far mean streak of independence brought on by neglect.” It seemed as t...
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how the president's limousine slowed to a crawl as driver greer turned back to see what the matter was instead of pulling off as fast as possible. the driver took off and raced toward parkland hospital.
Explains the ultimate john f. kennedy assassination - american history information guide and reference.
Explains that the assassination of president john f. kennedy was one of the most tragic events in history.
Describes the two locations where bystanders believed to hear shots ring out within dealey plaza: the texas school book depository on one of the higher floors and the grassy knoll behind the fence.
Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
In this essay, the author
Explains that john f. kennedy was elected president of the united states in 1960. he promised to lead the country down the right path with the civil rights movement.
Analyzes how malcolm x's speeches about the "white devil" spurred concern in the kennedy administration. baldwin saw malcolm as dangerous but for a different reason than the government.
Analyzes how malcolm's hatred for the kennedy administration led him to realize that he had respect for a civil rights leader.
Analyzes how malcolm held farmer in contempt with all the other leaders of the civil rights movement and that was not acceptable to him.
Analyzes how malcolm called kennedy on the birmingham bombings in may of 1963. malcolm attacked kennedy because fighting had been going on for three weeks before kennedy decided it was bad enough for government intervention.
Analyzes how malcolm didn't victimize kennedy, as he had lost supporters due to his failure to keep campaign promises. baldwin and malcolm shared some of the same views on president kennedy
Analyzes how baldwin agreed with malcolm in many of his beliefs and theories. baldwin witnessed the gentle side of malcolm and found it very endearing.
Analyzes how j. edgar hoover feared all civil rights leaders and felt they all posed threats. he tried many schemes to put malcolm x on trial.
Analyzes how hoover played a major role in the conviction and deportation of marcus garvey. he had an intense hostility to all forms of black american militancy.
Analyzes handler, m.s., "malcolm x scores kennedy on racial policy."
Describes schlesinger, jr. and arthur m. a thousand days: john f. kennedy in the white house.
Explains how malcolm x became one of the leading figures during the civil rights movement with his ideas and speaking abilities. the fbi became intensely interested in malcolm after his joining with elijah muhammad.
Analyzes how malcolm, as much as he denies his american side, believes in many of the constitutional rights afforded to all citizens. baldwin employs the freedom of speech through his writing.
Analyzes baldwin, james, and toni morrison's "down at the cross" and "to be baptized."