Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it. Research in the field of animal intelligence is essential to understand the more complex aspects of human intelligence. Ken Richardson, an honorary senior research fellow in the center of human development and learning at the Open University, in his book The Making of Intelligence remarks: “We can examine the nature of intelligence in its simpler - and hopefully more comprehensive - form in other animals, and thus describe it, and how it has increased in humans, more clearly.”(9) Even though animals can provide us with explanations, in many cases scientists are amazed by their intellect. According to Eugene Linden’s article in the Times, dolphins can to a command such as “now let’s try a tandem creative” with amazing stunts of synchronization. Only through conscious thought can they understand the meaning of being creative.
“Artificial Intelligence And America” Artificial Intelligence played a crucial role in our American history and the history of the world. Some view it as the vain pursuit of man to become god-like and create life, others, as the next logical step in computer technology. However, the conclusion is not nearly the most important part of it. The process of the pursuit of the creation of mechanical sentient life has also led to a much deeper understanding of how our own biological minds work, creating new methods to treat brain diseases, and other brain related disorders. Through this, life is longer sustained, but modern life itself would not exist without some AI programs today.
Technology mankind would use to assist in the search for answers. Used most commonly as an extension of the human biology. The Hubble telescope is a great representation of this phenomenon because it extends our biological sense of sight. But now, in the twenty first century the idea that technology is assisting mankind, has long been abandoned by most people of the twenty first century. Due to ignorance and laziness of humankind, the role of technology as shifted from assisting people in problems, to providing answers to problems.
Professor David Armstrong has thrown at us the inadequacies of behaviourism- it is not to be trusted fully in establishing the ability of the mind in other animals, but it will certainly help us in finding it. In this day and age, we look to science for reason. Science has been what has excelled us so quickly since its revolution in the 17th century and onwards. We have created many advanced machines with science—we have banished their faults with science. And so in looking for the mind in other animals we will be looking toward science, reasonably.
The debate concerning the nature of the relationship between race and intelligence has been highly contested by psychologists for many years. With the emergence of genetic research in recent times, some clarity has been provided, however, many unanswered questions still remain. This essay discusses the implications of IQ test scores and the potentially misleading information they generate when administered to non-Western individuals. Although it is argued that race is a dynamic social construct and therefore not scientifically sound, this essay will explain why considering context-specific information about an individual is vital when assessing their intelligence due to the substantial roles environmental factors play in the learning process. In fact, internal genetic factors and external environmental factors both contribute to the development of intelligence.
The study of non-human primates and dolphins has lead to many profound questions as to the nature of intelligence. And thought the answers provided to date have been disputed, the questions are not any less worth of being asked. But in order to get beyond the disputes, researchers must be willing to shed there antrocentric view of intelligence and accept that it is an trait which can evolve like any other trait. When this is done it may be finally possible to recognize the remarkable abilities that some many people seem to find in animals as evidence of animal intelligence not lesser human intelligence. Internet Sources: http://hcs.harvard.edu/~husn/BRAIN/vol2/Primate.html http://www.pigeon.psy.tufts.edu/psych26/history.htm
“Your success cannot be 1 or 2 percent. A 2 percent success rate is not ... ... middle of paper ... ...is not only unfair, but also counterproductive to the development of individuation of each twin. In conclusion, the thesis of this paper is supported by three contentions. First, if successful, cloning can have a lot of positive technological advancements that would help humanity. Second, Dolly, the first cloned mammal, inspired many scientists to speculate a new era in cloning technology and raise hopes for future probability in which human cloning was possible.
In recent years, discoveries have shed light on, with hindsight, a rather biased view on whether intelligence is determined solely by genetics or our environment. According to Eysenck, this is due mainly to larger and better selected samples, as well as technological advances within molecular genetics. When determining the malleability of intelligence, one must first have a firm grasp of what, exactly, intelligence is. Most definitions reflect the psychometric approach (Gross), which deals with measuring differences in individuals through tests. These can be divided into those with a narrower view (Burt and Terman, in Gross), which is seen in the idea of general intelligence ‘g’ (Spearman, in Gross), and those with a somewhat broader definition, which generally attempt to include aspects beyond cognition (Binet and Wechsler, in Gross).
Webster’s definition does not account for the critical aspects of emotion, free will and personality. A second definition given by the Encarta encyclopedia is the “general mental capability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, learn and understand new material and profit from past experience.” All of these are traits of the human mind. Therefore it would follow that if a machine does not possess one of these human characteristics it cannot be considered intelligent. Furthermore, it necessitates that an intelligent machine must be human-like. If this is so, a machine could then be described with the same qualifying words we use to describe a human.
Such acknowledgements impose limitations on the objectivity of research conducted in this new interdisciplinary space because the researchers have an unfettered opportunity to assert their own values. Such values are naturally occurring as Frerichs and Münich (2010) explain there is a “natural predisposition of human brains” (p. 534). The only way to move past these limitations are to move away from ‘value relations’ and towards a view of ‘commonalities of the world view.’ By doing so, we broaden the scope of our research and encourages our research to draw conclusions on humanity versus population X. Of course, this may not be a viable research methodology given resource constraints. Nonetheless, such an aspiration sets us in the right direction to transcend beyond the limits of current ... ... middle of paper ... ... of the Sociology of Morality (pp.