The Influence of Structure and Agency in the Crafting of Indian Foreign Policy

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Statement: India’s foreign policy has advanced prominently in three distinctive stages. It was largely speculative in the primary stage that concluded in 1964. The period up until 1990 witnessed a distinct admixture of speculative negotiations and progressively realist conduct. Post cold war era has been predominantly realist with minimal speculation. This essay aims to focus on various junctures that took place in altering Indian foreign policy, by analyzing the amount to which structures limited or facilitated elite agency. Furthermore, this essay discerns the causes of these developments and correlates them to an association of structure and agency. Decolonization established grounds for structural change in the frame of reference of augmented elite agency. The foreign policy has experienced noticeable alterations since decolonization. The existence and transformation of Indian foreign policy relies largely upon a coalition of structure and agency. Post-decolonization the political agency exhibited endeavors of enabling international peace via a speculative foreign policy. The Sino-Indian War arrested the process of ideation and coerced the elite agency to implement realistic measures, largely changing the face of Indian foreign policy. De-unification of the U.S.S.R and the up rise of US as a world power, along with the sudden bloom of People's Republic of China evidently coerced India to eliminate speculative agendas and focus on a foreign policy focusing on India’s safety, security and imperative goals. 1) The elite political leader Nehru was the chief framer of the foreign policy and emphasized the importance of speculative dimensions of foreign policy. Pervading against colonization and focusing on speculative developme... ... middle of paper ... ...of India both in sides of safety and prosperity of economy. National Democratic BJP Alliance was overthrown by the United Progressive Congress Alliance in 2004. UPA continued following BJP’s efforts with the Nuclear developments but at the same time amended ties with US and formed an understanding based upon the need for India to have nuclear weapons, thus resulting in international recognition of a legitimate state owning Nuclear Weaponry. 5) Cardinal transition can be viewed in India’s foreign policy since the post Cold War era. Developments have resulted in divorcing its unrealistic peace keeping measures whilst continuing to benefit the society but primarily emphasizing on national interest. For a country that demands influential global stance, India needs to enhance its agendas for foreign policy rather than the lack of ideas and solely situation based reforms.

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