In a study done by John ... ... middle of paper ... ...vents the drawing of a firm conclusion. REFERENCES Brigham, John C., & Malpass Roy S., (1985) The role of Experience and Contact in the Recognition of Faces Of Own- and Other-Race Persons. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 139-155. Lavrackas, Paul J., Buri John R., & Mayzner Mark S., (1976) A Perspective on the Recognition of Other-Race Faces. Perception & Psychophysics, 20, 475-481.
Herskovits ( 1948 cite... ... middle of paper ... ...lt to define, whether a particular fragment of one’s personality is culturally determined, demographically adopted or just a personal characteristic. Bibliography: 1. Egan G. ( 1998) The Skilled Helper, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company:USA 2. Ho Y.H.D. Internalized Culture, Culturocentrism and Transcendence, The Counselling Psychologist, Vol.23, 1, January 95, p.4-24 3.
"(Faundez, 213) Affirmative action is important especially in the work force. Before affirmative action, minorities and women felt, and seemed to be, discriminated against being chosen for the job. Affirmative action was to help with the "increasing of opportunities for those that were previously discriminated against"(Lemann, 145). Affirmative action was created to not only help Black-Amer... ... middle of paper ... .... Leshin, Geraldine (1979). Equal Employment Opportunity an Affirmative Action in Labor-Management Relations A PRIMER.
Stereotyping and social influence: The mediation of stereotype applicability and sharedness by the views of in-group and out-group members (1996) British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 369-397. * Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1979) as cited in Platow, M. J., Harley, K., Hunter, J., A., Hanning, P., Shave, R. & O'Connell, A. (1997). Interpreting in-group-favouring allocations in the minimal group paradigm. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 107-117.
America is the land of opportunity, but to be fully qualified for the status, it needs to be “color-blind, race-blind, and gender-blind.” Affirmative Action began as a way to stop discrimination, but as new laws have been added to it, it has become reverse discrimination. Everyone has the opportunity to be a great addition to society. It is an immense injustice for people to say that someone of a different race or gender is not capable of achieving the same status in life as a white male. Through this paper, the concepts of affirmative action will be analyzed and discussed. Affirmative Action began in 1965 when President Johnson signed the Executive Order 11246 in to law.
Affirmative action started in the 1960’s as a way to end discrimination against African American and later all minorities - including women. By migrating people of all color into workplaces and colleges/universities seemed to be the suitable solution to diversify our nation. Although blacks had been freed for a 100 years, they continually struggled with segregation. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned the segregation of all sort in the United States, however that was not enough. Congress mandated the affirmative action program as a plan of desegregation.
The policy began in 1965 under President Johnson. It was used to redress issues of discrimination, following the civil rights laws and constitutional guarantees on education and jobs. From the outset, affirmative action was envisioned as a temporary remedy that would create a "level playing field" for all Americans. Affirmative action policies required that active measures be taken to ensure that blacks and other minorities receive the same opportunities for career advancements, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid that had been nearly exclusive provisions for whites. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the landmark legislation that prohibited employment discrimination by large employers (over 15 employees), whether or not they had government contracts.
Now as we approach the 21st century, affirmative action seems to be a dying issue, legally and otherwise. The fact still remains that we have a racially and culturally diverse population, here in the United States, and something has to take the place of affirmative action. Diversity seems to be the new concept of most public and private organizations, Many Human Resources specialist seem to believe that where there is diversity there is no need for affirmative action. In this report I will look at what affirmative action has done for us, and where diversity can take us. President Johnson formally created affirmative action in 1965; it initially targeted employers that held federal contracts.
The stipulations that make up affirmative action today are too narrow to effectively help in the fight against racism and discrimination. Affirmative action has the capability of causing reverse discrimination. Discrimination against white males is just as bad as discrimination against any minority. Some people say that affirmative action is justified as a way of making up for past discrimination. Although discrimination still exists in the United States today, as it does in the rest of the world, most African Americans entering the job market today, were born after the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Because of this racism, minorities have not been as privileged as those who have the majority of support. Different legislation has come into existence during the last few decades in order to balance this problem. One such solution is affirmative action. Affirmative action is the practice of setting quotas and limitations on companies regarding the ethnicity of their employees so that there is a perceived fairness for all people groups. It has been said to result in both “opportunity” and “frustration” (Monroe, 1991).