History has proved the virtues of these elements to such a degree that, for most people, streets and squares constitute the very essence of the phenomenon “city”. (Gehl, 2011, p. 89) Some of these open spaces have and remain steadfast throughout the ages and are a focal point of the city for tourists and for families. They are a source of communication and are vital to the urban setting in a city. Squares and open spaces are either large in nature and have a very strong symbolic background through history; or can be small spaces, such as pocket parks and the small square. They equally play an important role in attracting social activity and in revitalising the city.
The author points out two leverage points: material stocks and flow, that is, a urban infrastructure built by stocks and flows will have big effect on system operation; and self-organization, that is organism and social system can change themselves by creating new structure and behavior. Deyond gives the example of Urban-think tank (U-TT), an architecture firm, using their projects vertical Gymnasiums (VGs) and Metro Cable to illustrate those two leverage points. The second article From Product to Process: Building on Urban Think Tank’s Approach to the Informal City introduce a firm named Urban- think tank (U-TT) that focuses on the city problem and tries to start proposal for the city in building projects in conflict zones. They have designed many projects in different parts of the world. Similar to this urban acupuncture is the way that “cures” the city and social problems by making changes of certain part in the city.
Unsuccessful existing and expired developments hinder its local community from progressing forward which causes a chain reaction of negativity (Tira M., Ivanička K., Špirková D., 2010). The declination of a district may occur because of various reasons. These reasons affect different districts in correspondence to the nature of the district. Issues such as segregation and alienation of site, lack of diversity, poor planning, decrease in value, poor maintenance, and security all contribute to the declination of a district (Christopher A.D.S., 2008). Therefore, the cause for redevelopment is not just to pacify these negative issues but rather it should be approached as a golden opportunity to look beyond that by creating added value.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the formation of urban sprawl including its impacts on people and to explore efficient alternatives. Urban sprawl is a common problem that the world is currently facing in the process of urbanization. The North America urban sprawl that began from 1950s has been regarded as an illness of urban developments. With the purpose of drawing lessons and enlightens to a sustainable urban planning, this paper tries to analyze social and economic reasons that have been the motivation of North American urban sprawl. And interpret the causes and effects of urban sprawl, and what can we take to mitigate this phenomenon?
• Structured Data Testing Tool – used by Google to check if your structured data markup can be correctly parsed and displayed in search results. • Structured Data Markup Helper – this point-and-click tool helps you add structured data markup to your HTML. • Email Markup Tester – used to validate the structured data contents of an HTML email. • Google Places – Google’s free local platform used by consumers to search for local businesses online. • Google Merchant Center – where you can upload your product data so that it is available to Google Product Search and other Google services.
Third, I will review the political economy (social-spatial dialect) landscape of the “urban question” and how their panorama explains and gives better analyses of urban inequality. Definition: The Urban Question Again, this section will give a working definition of the “urban question’. To fully compare the political economy and ecological perspectives a description of the “urban question” allows the reader to better understand the divergent schools of thought. For Social Science scholars, from a variety of disciplines, the “urban question” asks how space and the urban or city are related (The City Reader, 2009). The perspective that guides the ecological and the social spatial-dialect schools of thought asks the “urban question” in separate distinct terminology.
This negatively affects our society given that we internalized falsely ideas of what the environment should be. For instance, the idea that one does not belong in a particular setting or that certain people do not belong in a certain area. Thus, this separates society which can cause racist ideas and oppressed minority groups. Moreover, Davis discusses how cities are becoming fortress cities the reason being is that they have “encompassing walls, restricted entry points with guard posts, privatized roadways, overlapping private and public police services." Therefore, now public spaces have been transformed due to, the demand of controlling factors such as security, electronic surveillance, and private residence.
Aesthetic control in the city serves a number of purposes. For one, the zero-sum logic of interurban competition incentivizes the purification of urban space and the presentation of ‘cleanliness’ for the purposes of city marketing. As transfer payments decline as a source of revenue for municipal governments, cities are desperately attempting to enhance their international reputation for the purpose of attracting tourism and capital investment. The cleansing of visible poverty from urban space is accomplished through police harassment and displacement of visible poverty and other ‘undesirable’ uses of space(Kennelly 9). The city’s adaptation to market logics also influences the way urban space is produced and presented internally, to its own population.
Marketing Research 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sasel Research has developed a research proposal for Epic Developers to investigate the needs and wants when buying inner-city luxury apartments. The information that we collect will determine the advertising strategies that will be employed. Background information must be considered before research design and data collection methods are implemented. We have collected a variety of secondary information including Australian Bureau of Statistics and focusing on recent surveys and reports they have published.