There are quantitative and qualitative methods in the realm of academic research seem to be the most relevant to the domains of professional study at Henley-Putnam University. These methods involve the collection of different types of data to help better understand the world around us. Quantitative research is associated with the social science like chemistry, engineering, and mathematics such as measuring items quantitatively can consist of observing the distance between planets as they revolve around the sun. In other words, quantitative methods allow for measuring one thing to compare against another quantity to generate conclusions, sometime confirming hypotheses or creating new ones based on research outcomes. However, qualitative research is applied in the soft or social sciences, such as history, sociology and anthropology. According to Qualitative Research Consultants Association (QRCA), qualitative research seeks out the “why”, not the “how”, of its topic through the analysis of unstructured information. For instance, methodological discussions like According to Trochim, some researchers have sought to blend methodologies trying to leverage the strengths of both types. A burgeoning field such as Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides the opportunity for merging these methods using the observation of qualitative relationships and mathematical concepts. Some scientists have also criticized the scientific community and its overreliance on quantifiable methodologies (Trochim, 2006). Schwartz, a professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at New York University, wrote about assailing quantifiable methodologies and the unfortunate perception that it is a panacea in the academic research field (Schwartz,
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Research can be quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research is objective and involves measuring the phenomena under investigation. Qualitative research is subjective, explores experiences and feelings, and involves the recording of phenomena that cannot easily be quantified (Toates, 2010, pp. 5-6). Both are empirical since they involve data collection (OU, n.d.).
For the most part over and over again qualitative investigation is habitually contrasted with quantitative investigation. The big representation is problematical while researcher give consideration to over inside every one of the wide-ranging categories. Nevertheless, there are various significant issues in which researchers have an inclination to leap in one approach as well as another, depending on the position of their way of life.
Qualitative research relies on subjective data to provide a deep understanding of the meaning of an event from the point of view of certain individuals (Lobiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014). In contrast, quantitative research uses an objective approach (Lobiondo-Wood
Within scientific research there is always a strong debate between those that prefer quantitative methods and those who prefer qualitative ones. proponents of quantitative methods have built the standards in experimental research and in researches performed on a large number of subjects and which use sampling criteria and statistical analysis techniques. On the other side, the qualitative method uses procedures of qualitative nature both at the level of collecting the data as well as the level of analyzing them (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009). The gathering data procedures include: interviews, group discussions, observations, journals; while the analysis procedures include coding, categorizations and systematic confrontation between the categories and their dimensions. Such research is often defined as an explorative one, opposite to “classical” scientific research aiming to confirm / disconfirm initial hypothesis. Among the qualitative methods used in the scientific research we can list: Focus Group, Speech Analysis, Conversation Analysis, Grounded Theory and Phenomenological Interpretative Analysis (Tagliapietra, Trifan, Raineri & Lis, 2009).
There are debates on why qualitative and quantitative can be combined because the two approaches share the goal of understanding the world in which we live Haase & Myers (1980). However, Reichath &Rallis (1994) argued that the two paradigms are incompatible if the qualitative paradigm assumes that there are no external referents for understanding reality. Howe (1988) suggests that researchers should forge ahead with what works. Quantitative research makes no attempt to have personal relationship with the people being studied and to account of their view. The accounts include feelings, beliefs these being concept of feminist work. Feminism holds on to qualitative method because are interested in how ordinary people observe and describe their Silverman (1993).
Gelo, O., Braakmann, D., & Benetka, G. (2008). Quantitative and Qualitative Research: Beyond the Debate. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 42(3), 266-290. doi:10.1007/s12124-008-9078-3
Quantitative and qualitative research methods are the two central methods for conducting research. Although there are both advantages and disadvantages to each of these research methods, many researchers decide to merely utilize one of the methods, without exploring the other method at all. This is a problem as these researchers only get to analyze their research from one point of view rather than from differing points of view. In other words, these researchers will solely rely on numbers and statistics or solely rely on interviews and observations. The researchers Bonta and Gendreau are open to utilizing both research methods, however, instead of simply using quantitative research methods. Conversely, the researchers Roberts and Jackson are
According to Bryman and Bell (2015), a research strategy is “a general orientation to the conduct of business research” (p. 37). Researchers distinguish between a qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research. While qualitative research focuses on understanding texts and words and usually applies an inductive approach, quantitative data aims at measuring numerical and statistical data and typically follows a deductive approach (Bryman & Bell, 2015, pp. 37–38). A mixed methods research combines qualitative and quantitative research strategy, where either one of the two strategies is prioritised over the other or have the same status (Bryman & Bell, 2015, pp. 643–645).
Quantitative research uses a deductive reasoning also known as top to bottom or (top down approach) starting with a theory, then the hypothesis, followed by observation and finally confirmation , going from the general to the more specific. Quantitative methods use numbers and statistics to show the results of the research exercise and mainly are concerned with mathematics and statistics. In quantitative research there are levels of measurement being firstly nominal which are names of things followed by ordinal sequence of things, interval where the sequence has equal distance between each item, and ratio where there is a true zero (Alston & Bowles, 2003, p. 7-9).
On the other hand, Quantitative research refers to “variance theory” where quantity describes the research in terms of statistical relationships between different variables (Maxwell, 2013). Quantitative research answers the questions “how much” or “how many?” Quantitative research is an objective, deductive process and is used to quantify attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables with generalized results from a larger sample population. Much more structured than qualitative research, quantitative data collection methods include various forms of surveys, personal interviews and telephone interviews, polls, and systematic observations. Methods can be considered “cookie cutter” with a predetermined starting point and a fixed sequence of
Quantitative research may be seen as the less contentious of the two because it is more closely aligned with what is viewed as the classical scientific paradigm. Quantitative research involves gathering data that is absolute, for example numerical data so that it can be examined as unbiased as possible. The main idea behind quantitative research is that it is able to separate things easily so that they can be counted. The researcher generally has a clear idea of what is being measured before they start measuring it, and their study is set up with controls. Qualitative research on the other hand is a more subjective form of research, in which the research allows themselves to introduce their own bias to help form a more complete picture. Qualitative research may be necessary in situations where it is unclear of what is exactly being looked for in a study, while quantitative research generally knows exactly what it is looking for. Questionnaires and surveys are quantitative socio-legal research, because it is the collection of numerical data, or data that can be easily being turned into a numerical form. In terms of analysing quantitative data, Excel is the b...
Quantitative studies are primarily numbers based. They deal with large cohort groups as well as analyze large amounts of data. “A quantitative researcher typically tries to measure variables in some way, perhaps by using commonly accepted measures of the physical world (e.g., rulers, thermometers, oscilloscopes) or carefully designed measures of psychological characteristics or behaviors (e.g., tests, questionnaires, rating scales)” (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010, p. 94).
It is very important to find the appropriate literature related to the research before starting it. It will be useful to know the previous articles related to research and their results. This will help us in understanding existing techniques and their drawbacks in a better way, so that we can improvise those techniques or overcome the drawbacks with new techniques in our research.
Quantitative research involves the collection and converting of data into numerical form to enable statistical calculations be made and conclusions drawn. It provides a measure of how people think, feel or behave and uses the statistical analysis to determine the results. However, this measurement results in numbers, or data, being collected, which is then analyzed by using quantitative research methods (Byrne, 2007).