Personality does not have a specific definition, however its popular definition is ‘a dynamic organisation, inside the person, of a psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts, and feelings’ by Allport (1961, as cited in Maltby, Day, & Macaskill, 2013, p. 5). Personality is important in many areas of life as it can be used to predict behaviour (Maltby et al., 2013). Thus, psychologists are interested to seek to explain the motivation basis of behaviour, development of personality, personality disorders and how it influences psychology research. One of the most comprehensive theories to personality is the psychoanalysis approach, which was first founded by Sigmund Freud (Maltby et al., 2013). …show more content…
In Freudian theory, the mind has three level of consciousness: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. Freud (1940/1969) stated that behaviour of human is driven by instinctual drives, being the unconscious motives. Freud (1901/1965; 1923/1960) also stated that there are three basic structures of personality that graft the instincts – id, superego and ego. Id contains all the raw instinctual energy, superego is the conscience and ego is the balance between id and superego, which operates according to reality (as cited in Maltby et al., 2013). Psychosexual development of personality is the central element of Freudian theory. Freud (1940/1969) believed that personality development is mainly depends on biological factors while social factors have little influence. He also stated that people are born with instinctual drives, which are developed in five stages – oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital. Each stage has its own erogenous zone in different parts of the body, which is where the libido energy is invested in. The erogenous zone of each stage is very sensitive to stimulation and is the core of pleasure. If a child is …show more content…
Erikson believed that personality is developed throughout the lifespan, and not restricted to any age. Ego identity is the central element of Erikson’s theory (Erikson, 1968, as cited in Carver & Scheier, 2007). Ego identity is the conscious sense of self, which is derived from the social reality (Carver & Scheier, 2007). Beside ego identity, competence and personal adequacy are other important elements of psychosocial theory. A person will either feel a sense of competency or inadequacy, depending on how well each stage of development is managed (Carver & Scheier, 2007). There are eight stages of development. Each stage has a crisis (psychosocial crisis) and a conflict (psychosocial conflict). Psychosocial crisis refers to the turning point of a stage, where the potential for growth is high while psychosocial conflict refers to the struggle of attaining a psychological quality at a stage (Carver & Scheier, 2007). At each stage, there are two psychological qualities against each other, one being more adaptive while another is less (Carver & Scheier, 2007). A person has to balance between the two qualities of each stage. For example, at infancy stage, the two qualities are trust and mistrust. The child has to have a balance between the two qualities, otherwise he will trust others who are not trustworthy or does not trust others even when they are trustworthy (Carver & Scheier, 2007).
Erik Erikson developed the psychosocial theory, and “he describes our social experiences during our whole life span using eight different stages” (Cherry 2015). The first four stages are “trust vs. mistrust; which describes how the child needs to be able to trust their adult figures, autonomy vs. shame and doubt; which is about person control, initiative vs. guilt; which is about children learning to lead others, industry vs. inferiority; which is about gaining a sense of pride in things” (Cherry 2015). The final four stages are “identity vs. confusion; which begins the sense of self, intimacy vs. isolation; which explores personal relationships, generativity vs. stagnation; which focuses on career and family, and the final stage being integrity vs. despair; which describes reflecting back on life” (Cherry
Personality is defined as the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. Our personality has a huge influence on our enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors which influence how we adapt to our world. It’s how we define ourselves, and how others view you. Many psychologists have faced the challenge of trying to determine where our personality is derived from. Four main theories have been established on personality including psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, and social-cognitive. Using these theories, you can often better understand why people are the way that they are, such as Bill Cosby.
Psychologists defined personality as that make people uniquely themselves, to be all-inclusive characteristics, helped people appreciate the challenging environment of each individual Cervone & Pervin (2013). Beginning with, individuals that are unnatural by unconscious traits, push or pull into instant awareness. For example, the things people do to others that normally parents would do to their children without identifying whether they are encouraged by their aspiration to bear a resemblance to their parents. Following, ego forces people that are peculiar that provide a sense of personality or self. For example, we often strive to maintain a logic of comprehensive knowledge and reliability in one behavior. Next, biologically a person with a distinctive physiological, temperamental,
Erikson’s psychosocial stages generally occur with important age related events, presenting the individual with a conflict, or question to be answered. For example, the first stage (birth to two years of age) presents a crisis of trust vs. mistrust coinciding with the important event of feeding. In this stage a child develops a sense of competence (or lack of) over their ability to trust others.
This course has taught me a lot about the different personality theories as well as the best known psychology theorists that have developed these theories. Personality consists of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make an individual unique. Numerous theories have been emerged to implicit the different features of personality. The main purpose of some theories is to focus on explaining how personality developed.
Personality, is defined as the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. But when it comes down to it many different theorists define personality in many different ways. First we see that Sigmund Freud's states that he uses what he calls his own, psychoanalytic theory of personality, and Freud even argues “that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.” ("Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality - Boundless Open Textbook")
According to Saul McLeod (2008), in his article, Erik Erikson, he states, “Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development has eight distinct stages, taking in five stages up to the age of 18 years and three further stages beyond, well into adulthood. Erikson suggests that there is still plenty of room for continued growth and development throughout one’s life” (Paragraph 7). Erikson developed his theory of their being eight different psychosocial stages that a human being will encounter during their life. The eight states are: First, Trust vs. Mistrust, this is the first stage that Erikson developed in his theory. This stage will occur from a person’s birth to one year of their life. Trust is an essential part for children to see the trustfulness of other and the fundamental sense of building a relation through trustworthiness. For an example, Erikson decided that if an infant received food and comforted when needed the child will be able to develop a sense of trust for the caregiver. Not only was Erickson determined that children need a sense of comfort to develop trust, but mistrust is necessary for children to learn the difference between honest and a dishonest person in their life. Second, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, this is Erick Erikson second stage of his development theory children will go through between two and three years old. This is the time children can develop a sense of self-control without a loss of their own self-esteem. When children can be independent from the trust they have gain. If trust and a supportive atmosphere were not provided to a child, where the parents were over controlling, children will experience a low self-esteem and will always doubt their abilities. Third, Initiative vs. Guilt will begin to occur between ages four and five. During this time a child will be more independent to realize who she/he
Leadership has been studied and defined since the beginning of times. Throughout history, the leadership theory was characterized by the idea of leaders being great men who were brave and sources of authority and Justice (Marsiglia). However, leadership theories have changed over time and new ones have been developed. Similarly, in today’s time, a leader’s leadership style is defined as the way a leader approaches action towards followers to accomplish a mission. Despite the fact that leadership styles are vital, it is concluded that the essence of leadership is actually an individual’s personality and what provides the motivation, purpose, and direction to lead efficiently towards accomplishments. Personality types are known to be important in leadership because they help a leader develop followers accordingly, make valuable and timely decisions, and have a different perspective to accomplish a job. Personality shapes leadership and therefore also leadership styles. Without personality, there would be no leadership styles. Personality types provides the base for leadership development, style, and the foundations for qualities needed for any leadership position.
It requires a lot of reflection and is so complex that even Psychologists have studied it for years without completely understanding what the complexity entails; it is called personality. Personality is so important in our relations with others because it is our lifeline or link between communication and people. Usually when we meet someone, we end up describing him or her in type categories such as: tall, short, bright, witty, amiable, or pretty. While these general descriptions are accurate, they are just a small part of what may or may not represent a person. What actually represents someone is their personality but because human beings are so complex, we use adjectives as a partial description in a simplistic but futile attempt to understand them.
He implemented eight psychosocial stages which includes trust versus mistrust. One example of the specified inclusions are infants. In order to come to a resolution for these feelings of insecurity, infants look towards their care givers for care and stability to fulfill their desired needs. With autonomy versus shame stage, children begin to assert their independence, utilizing their skills otherwise they will end up doubting their abilities. Initiative versus guilt is another stage where pre-scholars develop initiative by devising and carrying out bold plans. These people plan activities, developing a sense of initiative with others therefore feeling secure in their ability to lead and make decisions. The identity versus role confusion stage is noted as Erikson’s most popular. He characterized adolescence as a crucial and critical time of identity development. To achieve a sense of identity some adolescents attempt to define and explore who they are regarding their career choice, religion, political views, sexual orientation etc., figuring out a way to fit into society. According to Erikson, “the adolescent mind is essentially a mind or moratorium, a psychosocial stage between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult” (Erikson, 1963, p.245. As they go through the different sexual and
Personality is an individual’s characteristic style of behaving thinking and feeling. Personality is something we develop naturally as we travel through life we try to understand the process of personality development and they have pondered questions of description like how do the people differ why do people differ and the bigger question of measurement is how can personality be assessed for biologists attempted to classify all plants and animals personalities by labeling and describing different personalities psychologist focus on specific individual. Differences characteristics such as honesty, anxiousness, or moodiness.
Personality is a branch of scientific discipline that studies temperament and its variation among people. It is a dynamic and a set of characteristics possessed by their atmosphere, cognitions, emotions, motivations and behaviours in various things. Personality conjointly refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments and behaviour consistently exhibited over time that powerfully influences one’s exceptions, self-perceptions, values and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to different folks, problems and stress.
From a Freudian perspective, human development is based on psychosexual theory (Wedding & Corsini, 2014). Psychosexual theory indicates that maturation of the sex drives underlies stages of personality development (Shaffer et al., 2010). It was Freud’s perspective that there are three components of personality (the id, ego, and superego) that become integrated into his five stage theoretical model. The id was the biological or drive component that is innate from birth. The sole purpose of the Id is satiate an individual’s internal drives (Wedding & Corsini, 2014). The ego is the conscious portion of our personality that mediates between our id and superego. Throughout development the ego reflects the child’s emerging ability to...
Freud emphasizes on the life history of individuals. As a result, he created 3 parts of human personalities. The first one being Id which is the largest portion of the mind. This portion is unconscious which results in being present at birth. The next one is ego; this portion is conscious and begins to emerge in early infancy. Lastly is superego which is the conscience. This part begins to develop from ages three to six. Freud also explains the five psychosexual stages which are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. “Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of five.” (Cherry, n.d.). All five psychosexual stages help establish a personality at a young age.