Two objections to utilitarianism will be examined, as well as Louis Pojman’s responses to those objections in Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong. It will be shown that Pojman presents an adequate defense of utilitarianism, and that utilitarianism succeeds as a worthwhile moral theory. Act-Utilitarianism is the thesis that “an act is right if and only if it results in as much good as any available alternative” (Pojman 110). One conspicuous problem with the thesis is that it suggests that correct moral actions will often clash with our intuitions about basic moral norms. For example, Pojman refers to Richard Brandt’s criticism in which he points out that the act-utilitarian seems to be committed to helping the needy above one’s own family, repaying debts only if there is no better use for the money, and ending the lives of those who are a drain on others (Pojman 110).
The conflict of what truly causes a family to become dysfunctional wages on in literature, however Yates and Tolstoy inherently prove that the corruption of a family is typically the result of a degraded society with deteriorated morals. Bibliography • Olesen, John, Joanne Fallon, and Louise Mark. Groups: a manual for chemical dependency and psychiatric treatment. Santa Fe, NM (342 Hillside Ave., Santa Fe 87501): CL Productions, 1993. Print.
Anatomy of Criticism by Northrop Frye In Anatomy of Criticism, author Northrop Frye writes of the low mimetic tragic hero and the society in which this hero is a victim. He introduces the concept of pathos saying it “is the study of the isolated mind, the story of how someone recognizably like ourselves is broken by a conflict between the inner and outer world, between imaginative reality and the sort of reality that is established by a social consensus” (Frye 39). The hero of Hannah W. Foster’s novel, The Coquette undoubtedly suffers the fate of these afore mentioned opposing ideals. In her inability to confine her imagination to the acceptable definitions of early American female social behavior, Eliza Wharton falls victim to the ambiguity of her society’s sentiments of women’s roles. Because she attempts to claim the freedom her society superficially advocates, she is condemned as a coquette and suffers the consequences of exercising an independent mind.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that puts the decision on whether an action is right or wrong into the consequences of the action. For instance, if an action has a negative outcome, then it is viewed as wrong. If it has a positive outcome, the action becomes right. This means that the action does not only affect the initiator, but takes into account the interest of others (Driver 1). Utilitarianism is based on the right being that which has a good or pleasant outcome, and immoral being an action with a bad outcome.
Various works of literature as well as films attest to the fact that society is hinged on perfection. The means by which individuals achieve this false sense of perfection may be horrendous and immoral, yet they are inevitable. Deceit is necessary in order to fulfill personal desires and conform to societal ideals. Henrik Ibsen’s play, A Doll’s House, George Cukor’s film, Gaslight and Edgar Allen Poe’s short story, “A Tell-Tale Heart”, all explore the concept of deceit and the role it plays in the lives of individuals and society alike. The issues which instigate deceptive tactics, along with the different modes in which deceit is used and ultimately the consequences thereof are further revealed in each material of study.
Due to these assumptions, those facing illness tend to become socially withdrawn, have loss of productivity and lowered self-esteem. (Vertilo & Gibson, 2014, p.267a) These negative effects of the stigma act as barriers for treatment seeking attitudes and thus affecting their overall recovery (Vertilo & Gibson, 2014, p.267a). In my own experiences, these negative effects have led to consequences which impaired my social relationships because of my low self-esteem. As Vertilo and Gibson would say: society continues to “reinforce these misconceptions that mental illnesses are stable, permanent and unresponsive” and “Fallacies about mental health must be disapproved” (Vertilo & Gibson, 2014,
Gregor, the main character and Kafka himself, experienced insecure behavior, alienation and depression in their relationships. For Gregor, these symptoms had a tremendous effect on his self-concept: it led to a depressive and desolate end. Kafka’s misery in his real life was reflected in the Gregor‘s transformation. The Metamorphosis exposes the outcome of negative self-concept from Gregor’s feelings from his relationships, alienation and loss of communication. This essay will be able to provide evidence by describing the relationships both in Gregor’s and Kafka’s life, how their relationships and form of attachment triggers alienation, and the loss in communication can create a self-concept as belittling as a dung beetle.
The tragedy presented in Eckbert the Fair, follows a unique structure to maximize the effect of the downfall of the main characters. The narrator justifies the main character’s hamartia by deliberately generalizing how it is also everyone’s hamartia. In turn of the story, however, the punishment for the wrongdoings is inevitable. The narrator makes it quite difficult to understand the nature that seems rather too bad to be true. This is essentially where the uneasy feelings toward the bitter punishment of Eckbert comes from.
Negative stimulus automatically triggers the response of counterfactual thinking. The different effects of counterfactual thinking integrate in to a functional model that contrasts positive consequences of the inferential mechanism (Myers & Twenge 72-73). Thoughts that relate to adverse emotional circumstance of the past and hypothetical reinterpretations of history, one is bound to experience feelings of despair, intense sense of loss, and regret. Social psychologist have studied the worth of thinking and feeling of a counterfactual character and in the process confirming that undesirable emotions could arise from counterfactual discerning. The social psychological theory could functionally become beneficial to individuals with an integrated possibility of causal inference.
Disabled people 's self worth experiences and opportunities will be affected negatively. They end up feeling depressed, frustrated and angry. Swain et al (2007) therefore argues for pursuits of inclusion and adoption as alternative perspectives based on human rights On the other hand some theorists argue that labels give people identity. For example in case of a career such as a ‘social worker’ it can be taken positively (Giddens (2006). When people are labeled their behavior change in order to suit the label they are tied to.