Bobbio offers the observation that politics is contradictory and paradoxical, since it often includes unavoidable broken promises. Postmodern political thinkers like Foucault put forth the idea that power among the hands of the state is both suspicious and dangerous. In discursive political theory, there must be an open communication of ideas and reason between citizens, but many critics, like Schumpeter and Sheldon Wolin, argue that open dialogue in modern democratic practices is vulnerable to fears and concerns of citizens. Inclusionary democracy prevents the tyranny of a few to withhold political rights to citizens and calls for acceptance of rights for various social and racial groups in order for equal representation in the political process. However, various groups have challenged the success of democracy to fully represent citizens’ rights because of its divisive nature.
"Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it" [Lord Acton, British Historian]. It is human nature that the more power one desires the more corrupt actions they have to commit to attain power. Power is the ability to have control over people and/or things. People who are powerful can and in most cases will create an illusion of anything they want you to see about them. This illusion can make people blind to their true intentions.
2. Ethical dilemma is when an individual had to decide between two options, both are morally correct but it is in conflict. Ethics is important because an individual needs to have an idea that something is morally good or bad. Not to mention, there are people who are untrustworthy; therefore, we need to able to make a judgment on who will affect us in an organization. For example, one bad practice that occurs in the real world is money laundering which is a bad practice that will affect the organizations and the public trusts.
Objectivism is defined as “an ethical theory that moral good is objectively (based on facts rather than feelings or opinions) real or that moral precepts are objectively valid.” (Webster). Demonstrated by Ayn Rand in the book, The Fountainhead, objectivism seems to most, to be morally wrong, and socially impractical, despite seeming to be a stress-free way of life. In The Fountainhead, Howard Roark does not see relationships as necessary, but as a means to an end. For America to be purely objectivist would tear the country apart, in the sense that “normal social relationships” would no longer exist, but hatred and racism would become obsolete. A democratic government would be unable to succeed because no one would look at issues from the perspective of the “common good”, but from the perspective of what benefits the individual.
As a result, failure ... ... middle of paper ... ...d in the discussion of promise keeping and beneficence, identifiable logical or practical contradictions arise when attempting to universalize morally impermissible maxims (according to the CI). Mill argues that the CI only shows “that the consequences of [the maxims] universal adoption would be such as no one would choose to incur.” This is erroneous for there is no such “choice” available. The logical and practical contradictions that Mill fails to recognize produce an outcome (rejection of the maxim) necessitated by rationality and a free will. It is not that the consequences are unpleasant, but that their production is irrational. Works Cited Christine Korsgaard.
Mill writes that “… when he begins to deduce from this precept [the universal law test] any of the actual duties on morality, he fails … to show that there would be any contradiction, any logical impossibility, in the adoption by all rational beings of the most outrageously immoral rules of conduct” ( Troyer 97). In defending his own moral theory, Mill gives a similar example to Kant’s, explaining how the principle of utility does not justify lying. Mill writes that “… it would often be expedient … to tell a lie. But inasmuch as the cultivation in ourselves of a sensitive feeling on the subject of veracity is one of the most useful… and inasmuch as any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the trustworthiness of human assertion… [a person who lies] acts as one of their own worst enemies” (Troyer 112). Mill’s rejection of lying as right course of action is based on the negative consequences it
It especially becomes ethically problematic if one embraces the existentialist understanding of existence and attempts to provide normative guidance or establish a sound moral argument. In particular the combination of Friedrich Nietzsche’s ethical, metaphysical, and epistemological beliefs become highly problematic when attempting to apply them to an ethical framework which would provide normative claims. Therefore, if one were to accept Nietzsche’s existential philosophical descriptive claims, it is impossible to establish a functioning ethical system that would not lead to catastrophic social, economic, environmental, and political problems. Although it is likely Nietzsche would argue that his claims concerning reason, knowledge, and morality were merely descriptive truth claims which accurately portrayed the world the only way we could accurately understand it, it opens the door for human actions which have ethical repercussions. Even Nietzsche’s normative claims concerning a healthy will to power fail to adequately address any ethical problems inherent in his ideas.
Similarly, in today’s world corrupted politicians’ shady dealings and backhanded methods create an environment that makes it difficult for those honest politicians to function unhampered. In regards to the upcoming elections, the relevance of this is important to recognize. People must be use proper judgment to discern those who are honest from those who are corrupt in order to ensure a loyal government. Works Cited Feldman, Kevin, Kevin Feldman, Sharon Vaughan, and Kate Kinsella. The Tragedy of Julius Caesar.
This demonstrates how easily authority can corrupt an individual. Jessup knew Santiago would physically not be able to handle the “code red”, yet power overrules his morals (A Few Good Men). Fromm would admit that Jessup’s authority trumped his morals, yet also believes that Dawson and
I believe that a leader should tell the truth and win the support of the public by being known as doing this. Machiavelli seems to have the idea of preparing for the worst and thinking in terms of the worst. This is a preventative measure that will benefit anybody who has evil intentions. Only a person who thinks that man is evil would think of such ways to run a government in the way that Machiavelli thought a government should be operated. Machiavelli felt that “crafty and deceitful princes have historically defeated the faithful princes”(Prince).