The Importance Of Heredity On Child Development

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Vygostsky views human development as an accumulated process, including developmental level characterized by what a child can do independently and the level of potential development (i.e, ZPD) characterized by what a child can do with assistance of competent others. With guidance of competent adults and/or collaboration of competent peers, children are effectively able to internalize skills and knowledge based on their own characteristics through interaction. The vast majority of scholars in North America, according to Tudge and Scrimsher, pay substantial attention to the interpersonal impacts (i.e., interaction between competent others and child) on ZPD, but their understanding in terms of ZPD is biased. Vygostky regards both cultural-historical…show more content…
However, they do not know the social meaning of what have known. In the process of learning with competent others, children are able to link their historical backgrounds to the cultural concepts. Moreover, Vygostsky highlights the importance of individual differences in understanding of ZPD. He acknowledges the impact of heredity on child development, on the one hand. Because children tend to reconstruct what they have learnt from interaction with competent others, resulting in distinct mental structures, he also argues that children may interpret social events differently, on the other hand. Therefore, individual differences are needed to be taken into account while employing scaffolding in practice and applying his theory in scientific…show more content…
Although Skinner defenses his position in this problem in multiple ways, I do not think they are persuasive enough. He argues that even thinking (e.g., problem thinking) can be taught by using programmed instruction. The core of an effective programmed instruction is the natural consequences of answering correctly (i.e., positive reinforcement). Nonetheless, there is not a right or wrong answer available for numerous questions that are important to teach thinking, especially in the field of social science. Critical thinking, the most important skills for each person, is usually developed through observing the world, communicating with others, collecting information, formulating position, and defending the position. It is so complicated that it cannot be taught only through instructional material. Even though all technical and theoretical barriers to applying programmed instruction may be solved, all people would be expected have the same way of thinking if we use programmed instruction to teach thinking. Many people, of course, criticize that individuality would be suppressed by using programmed instructions. It appears that this is not an outcome anticipated by most
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